Turkish Festivals - Bayram

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    Turkish Festivals - Bayram

    Bayram is the Turkish word for a nationally celebrated festival, applicable to both national (i.e. secular) or religious celebrations. In accordance with this dual applicability, the method with which one determines the yearly timing of Bayrams is different for national and religious holidays.
    State holidays in Turkey have set dates under the nationally-used Gregorian Calendar, while the religious holidays are coordinated and publicly announced in advance by the Government's Presidency of Religious Affairs department according to the Lunar Calendar, and are subsequently accommodated into the national Gregorian Calendar, which results in the dates for religious holidays changing every year with a shift margin of approximately 11 days.
    Large scale non-Turkish or non-Islamic traditions and celebrations may similarly be called Bayram, as illustrated by Halloween being referred to as "Cadılar Bayramı" (i.e. "Bayram of Witches"), Easter as "Paskalya Bayramı" (i.e. "Easter Bayram"), Christmas as "Noel Bayramı" (i.e. "Christmas Bayram"), or Hanukkah as "Yeniden Adanma Bayramı" (i.e. "Renewal/Rededication Bayram"). However, it should be noted that not every special occasion or holiday is referred to as a Bayram, as illustrated by the case of New Year's Eve, World Health Day or Liberation of Istanbul, among others.

    National Bayrams of Turkey

    National Sovereignty and Children's Day ("Ulusal Egemenlik ve Çocuk Bayramı"), April 23 (1923)
    Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day ("Atatürk'ü Anma, Gençlik ve Spor Bayramı"), May 19 (1919)
    Victory Day ("Zafer Bayramı"), August 30 (1922)
    Republic Day ("Cumhuriyet Bayramı"), October 29 (1923)

    Religious Bayrams of Turkey

    The three-day, post-Ramadan, Şeker/Ramazan Bayramı (Eid ul-Fitr; i.e. "Bayram of Sweets" or "Ramadan Bayram")
    The four-day Kurban Bayramı (Eid ul-Adha; i.e. "Sacrifice Bayram")
    Cumhuriyet Bayramı, i.e. Republic Day, celebrations on the
    Bosporus in Istanbul, with the highly-anticipated annual
    fireworks show in the national colors of red-and-white

    Traditional Ramazan Bayramı, i.e. Ramadan Bayram,
    wishes from the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality,
    stating "Love and Be Loved", in the form of mahya lights
    stretched across the minarets of the Blue Mosque in Istanbul


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