Relative clauses

Sponsorlu Bağlantılar


----Subject or object----

1 Subject and Object

Relative clauses give extra information about a noun in the main clauses.
They can refer to this as subject or object.

That’s the woman who bought my car. The woman (subject )bought my car.

That’s car that I used to own. I used to own the car.(object)

2 Combining sentences

Note how sentences are combined.
Subject :This is jean.She bought my car.
Jean is the person who bought my car.
(she is not repeated,as the person is the subject.)
object: That is jean’s car.I used to own it.
That’s the car that I used to own.
(it is not repeated,as the car is the object.)

----Defining or non-defining----

1 Defining
Defining clauses give important information which tells us exactly what is being referred to.
That book which you lent me is really good.

2 Non-defining
Non-defining clauses add extra information ,separated by commas in writing,and intonation in speaking.
The book, which I hadn’t read,was still on the shelf.

----Omitting the relative pronoun----

1 Object clauses
The relative pronoun can be left out in object clauses in both speaking and writing, provided these are defining.
That’ the car I used to own.

2 Non-defining clauses
The realative pronoun cannotbe left out in a non-defining clause.

----Which,who and that----

1 That instead of which
That is often used instead of which in speech.
Is this the house that you bought?

2 That instead of who
that can also refer to people in everday speech.
Have you met the boy that sue is going to marry?

3 Which in non-defining clause.
That cannot be used to introduce a non-defining clause.
The hotel ,which was a huundred years old,was very comfortable.

4 Prepositions
That cannot be used after a preposition.
This is the car(that / which) I paid € 2000 for. (everybody speech)
This is the car for which I paid € 2000. (formal)

----Whose and whom----

1 Whose means ofwhom,and usually refers to people.
This is jack.his sister is steying with us.
This is jack,whose sister is staying with us.

2 Whom is the object form of who,and has to be used after prepositions.
This is the person I sold my car to. (everbody speech)
This is the person to whom I sold my car. (formal)


1-) Underline any relative pronouns that can be left out in these sentences.
a)I think that my boss is the person who I admire most.
b)Harry, who was tired,went to bed very early.
c)We’re taking the train that leaves at 6.00.

2-) Replace the relative pronoun underlined with that,where possible.
a) This is the magazine which I told you about.
This is the magazine that I told you about.
b) John’s flat ,which is in the same block as mine,is much larger.
John’s flat that is in the same black as mine, is much larger.
c) The girl whose bag I offered to carry turned out to be an old friend.
The girl that bag I offered to carry turned out to be an old friend.

3-) Decide whether each sentence contains a defining or a non-defining relative clause.
a) Everone who got to the sales early found exellecent bargains.
b) Leave the quastions which you can’t answer until the end.

c) Helen picked up the book,which had a green cover.

4-) Choose the most suitable word in each sentences.
a) My friend jack,that / who / whose parents live in glasgow,invited me to spend christmas in
b) Were’s the computer program that / whom /whose I told you about.
c) I don’t believe the story that / who / whom she told us.

5-) Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space,or leave the space blank wherever possible.
a) The person whose fingerprints are on the gun was the person who killed DR martin .
b) My bike,which I had left at the gate,had disappeared.
c) Peter,who couldn’t see the screen ,decided to change his seat.

6-) Make one new sentence from each pair of sentences,beginning as shown,and using the word given in capitals.
a) Brenda is a friend.I went on holiday with her. WHO
Brenda is the friend who I went on holiday with.
b) This is Mr Smith.His son Bill plays in our team. WHOSE
This is Mr Smith whose son Bill plays in our team.

7-) Make one sentence from each group of sentences,begining as shown.
a) The hotel was full of guests.the hotel was miles from anywhere.the guests had gone there to admire the scenery.
The hotel,which was miles from anywhere,was full of guestes who had gone there to admire the scenery.
b)I lent you a book.It was written by a friend of mine.She lives in France.
The book, which was written by a friend live in France.

:cool:These sentences are all grammatically possible,but not appropriate in speech.rewrite each sentence so that it ends wit the preposotion undirlened.

<<Key points>>

1 Long and complex sentences with relative clauses are not usual in speech.ıt is more usual in speech to join shorter clauses with conjunctions.
2 Relative pronouns are usually left out in object clauses in speech.
This is the book I told you about.
3 In speech it is common to end relative clauses with a preposition.
That’s the girl I live next door to.