Bazı İllerimizin İngilizce Olarak Tanıtımı konusu Sponsorlu Bağlantılar İZMİR My city's name's history: In history it is said that there was a group of women named 'amozon women' and this group of women were lived in aegeon region before İzmir had taken it's name.These women were hate from the men and they use the men for heavy works and men were serving them.Amozon women were so strong that they were fighting against the men and for carring their weapon they cut one of their bust. One day the chief of the group of Amozon women fell into love and she decided to marry him so they combine their lands. This chief changes her name and she decided to take the name 'Smyrna'. And then the man whom she married decided to give the name of his wife to their lands. Since that day 'Smyrna' became ancient name of İzmir. By the years passed the name Smyrna has changed so many times and İzmir is the last name of these lands. MY BEAUTİFUL CİTY İzmir is known as the pearl of Aegean region. . It is Turkey's third largest city and second most important port. Also it is an important tourism centre in this region.There are lots of wonderful places to visit and if you want to have fun time İzmir is the best province for you. The people are very warmblooded and they are famous with their hospitality.Also they are friendly and helpful.İn adicition the girls have become famous with their beauty. CLIMATE: The weather is a typcal mediterranean climate.The summers are hot and the winters are warm. The average temperature is 18 degrees. In winters the weather is sometimes rainy and very cold but in general it has a nice climate.In summers the weather is always sunny but some summer nights are a little bit cold. Usually people can't decide what to wear when they want to go out. Because the weather can change. Snowfall is rare but this winter it was very surprising to see İzmir covered with snow. ACCOMODATİON: The accomodation will never be a problem for you. Because there are lots of hotels and they have wonderful restaurants and they are very comfortable. You have lots of options to choose a hotel among them.Hilton Ege Palas Efes Princess are some of the famous hotels. RESTAURANTS: The best restaurants are in Sahilevleri and İnciraltı. Fish is the best meal that you can eat. Especially cipura is the best fish that people prefer. You can find this fish in any of İzmir's sea food restaurants. And also you can eat your fish near the sea. İn addition there are very varied cafes which have delicous meals and which have very fantastic ambience.You can also eat 'Kumru' and 'Boyoz' which are peculiar to İzmir. You can't find the delicious taste of these foods in anywhere else. I LOVE THE NEİGHBOORHOOD OF MY CİTY ALSANCAK: Alsancak is the centre of shopping and fantastic cafes. There are modern buildings and attractive shops along the street and many people prefer to go there for shopping. Shops and cafes are located in streets and they are far from the main street so people are not disturbed by the traffic. Alsancak is the place that the teenagers prefer to go. Because there are lots of fantastic cafes and these cafes have delicious foods. Also Hilton hotel is located in this neighboorhood and it's game centre is prefered by most of the teenagers. Also you can see .....s who are playing game in this game centre. It is a place for having fun and people from every age can have fun there. BARLAR SOKAGI: Street of Bars. You can find live music in those bars and discos can be prefered too. The bars are different from the usual bars because attractive old houses are restored and run as a bar. ASANSOR: An elevator from 19th century. It is 51 metres in height. It links Mithat Paşa street to the Halil Rıfat Paşa street. It was built in 1907 and restored by the municipality in 1993. On the upper side there is an open-air cafe and a restaurant that offers you a delicous meal with a breathtaking view of İzmir and the bay. BALCOVA: It is on the roads of Urla and Çeşme. If you want to go to Balçova Thermal Springs turn left at İnciraltı cross roads.It is one kilometre away. This may have been the first hydrotherapy center of the ancient world. Today there are modern facilities for visitors to the hot springs and luxury hotels. The temperature of the water is 63 degrees C. CLOCK TOWER: Clock tower is another symbol of İzmir and it was build in Konak Meydan in 1901. It is heart of the city and it can be said to be a meeting place for many people. 25 M HIGHT BORNOVA: Ege Universty's campus is located in this area and İzmir Manisa roads passes through Bornova.İt is seven kilometre away from the city centre. CESME: Cesme which is 80 km away from İzmir is a holiday resort with excellent accomodations and restaurants. Altınyunus Sheraton Ontur are some of the famous hotels that are usually prefered by tourists. Restaurants in Dalyan Köy are the most popular places for eating fish and watching the beautiful clear blue waters of Çeşme. Çeşme has also got a wonderful night life to have fun. Seaside Joy Nispet Mekan are some of the night clubs. FOCA: It is a fishing town 50 km away from Izmir. Foça is famous with it's phoakaians. You can find them on the islands and it will be very entertaining to go these islands by ship. Also Foça have many hotels and pensions. You can eat fresh fish there because as I said before it is a fishing town. HOUSE OF THE VIRGIN MARY: It is said that Virgin Mary had spent her last years there. It is located between Selçuk and Ephesus. Travel agencies in İzmir organise day tours to this place. IZMIR FAIR: It is an international trade fair that has been held since 1932. Between august and september famous people come to this fair and they give concerts to people of İzmir. KADIFEKALE: The castle offers you an excellent view of İzmir. KARSIYAKA: It is located on the north shore of İzmir and is means "opposite shore"People who live in Karşıyaka think that they are diffirent from people of İzmir and they have an individual culture and history. Also they have their own football team. They are always quarrel with Göztepe football team and it is impossible to pass near them after Karşıyaka and Göztepe matchs. KEMERALTI: It is one of the shopping centres of İzmir. It is consist of narrow streets and here you can find jewellers drapers shoemaker and shops specialising in all kinds of goods from leather to olives and cheese. The atmosphere of the buildings are very different from other shopping centers because they have been in Konak Kemeraltı since 19th century and the buildins are old fashioned. KORDON: It is located between Konak meydan and Alsancak. It becomes one of the most crowded places at the weekends. Especially young people prefer to go there because there are bars and some places for shopping.Kordon is also famous with it's horse-drawn phaetons with colorful ponpons and young lovers loves to wander with them. Kordon is very famous that there are lots of songs that are written for Kordon : "My lover seemed to say/Let us meet on the Kordon one day/Perhaps at ten o'clock". This is one of the popular old songs. PASAPORT: The name of the dock between Konak and Cumhuriyet Meydan. Pasaport Dock was built in 1876. This area was full of old fashioned coffee houses which served waterpipes as well as tea and coffee but today pubs took their place. PERGAMUM: The place where parchment is thought to have been invented. İn the centre of Pergamum Acropolis and the world's steepest amphitheatre is located. This amphi theatre has 16000 seats. This complex was one of the foremost heath cent ers of the ancient world. SELCUK: It is 94 km away from İzmir. SeIcuk is the site of Ephesus Museum a magnificent castle and the 6th century Basilica of St.John. The road to the resorts of Marmaris and Bodrum passes through Selcuk also Kuşadası is twenty minutes away from there. URLA: Urla is a resort 42 km from Izmir n the road to Cesme. People of İzmir spend their summers and weekends here. This city was the birthplace of the illustrious philosopher Anaxogoras and is latterly also famous for a local pastry dish "katmer" and for its meat and fish restaurants. WILD HERBS: Dishes made with fresh herbs have a special place in the Aegean cuisine. When spring comes local markets are filled with green vegetables such as radika turpotu hardalotu and many more. The leaves are washed blanched and served with a ressing of lemon juice and olive oil. İZMİR'S BAY; İzmir's bay is very dirty. But it's going to clean by some people. They are working for it. And somewhere sea's smeel is very bad. You feel very bad because it. 9 Eylül 1922 / İZMİR "I love all İzmir and people of İzmir; I am sure that; beautiful İzmir's perfect people love metoo." It was said by Atatürk in 1922 İSTANBUL The Istanbul City Istanbul is an old old city you can see the remains of many ancient civilizations and their culture in harmony with Turkish culture. The old versus the new the traditional versus the modern is a conflict a visitor often observes. The city is full of contrasts and colorful views So enjoy one of them: The diverse ethnicity of the city is another point which is worth examinig. The Minorities sum up to a majority and build up an enormous population. The natives of the city are very typical you can easily identify them from the look in their eyes. take a look at the good old days. ARRIVAL TO THE CITY Turkey demands an official entry visa from citizens of several countries. Before your departure to Turkey it is better to check with a Turkish consulate in your country to determine if you need a visa. In some cases you can obtain a visa upon arrival at Ataturk airport for a small fee. After passing from the passport control it is appropriate to declare your foreign currency and your valuable objects and have it recorded in your passport. As elsewhere too there are limits on the amount of alcoholic drinks and cigarettes that can be brought in: two boxes of cigarettes 50 cigars 200 grams of tobacco and 2.5 liters of alcoholic drinks are allowed. WORK HOURS AND HOLIDAYS Banks are open weekdays from 8:30 AM until noon or 12:30 PM depending on the bank and from 1:30 PM until 5.00 PM. However there are some banks which continue to serve during lunch breaks. Museums are generally open Tuesday through Sunday from 9:30 AM until 5.00 PM or 5:30 PM and closed on Monday. Palaces are open the same hours but are closed on Thursday. For specific information on museums please visit our museums section. Shops and bazaars are normally open Monday through Saturday from 9:30 AM to 1.00 PM and from 2.00 PM to 7.00 PM and closed all day on Sunday. But most stores in shopping malls and crowded streets are open seven days a week including lunch breaks. You can find restaurants or cafes open virtually at any time of the day or night. HOLIDAYS January 1 (New Year's Day) December 24-26 2000 (Seker Bayram marking the end of Ramadan) March 5-8 2001(Kurban Bayram another important religious holiday). Muslim religious holidays are based on the lunar calendar and will shift about 10 days backwards each year. The dates given here for the Seker and Kurban holidays are for 2000 and 2001. April 23 (National Independence and Childrens Day) May 19 (Ataturk's Commemoration Day) August 30 (Zafer Bayram or Victory Day) October 29 (Cumhuriyet Bayram or Republic Day celebrating AtatŸrk's proclamation of the Turkish republic in 1923). VISITING THE MOSQUES Most mosques in Istanbul are open to the public during the day. Prayer sessions called namaz last 30 to 40 minutes and are observed five times daily. Tourists should however avoid visiting mosques midday on Friday when Muslims are required to worship. For women bare arms and legs are not acceptable inside a mosque. Men should avoid wearing shorts as well. Women should not enter a mosque without first covering their heads with a scarf. Before entering a mosque shoes must be removed. MAIL Post offices are painted bright yellow and have PTT (Post Telegraph and Telephone) signs on the front. The central Post office is open Monday through Saturday from 8 AM to 9 PM Sunday from 9 AM to 7PM. Smaller ones are open Monday through Friday between 8:30 AM and 5.00 PM. THE MONEY The monetary unit is the Turkish lira (TL) which comes in bank notes of 250.000; 500000; 1000000 5.000000 and 10.000.000. Smaller denominations come in coins of 25000; 50000 and 100.000. In Istanbul traveler's checks are rarely accepted. ATMs can be found in even the smallest Turkish towns. Most accept international credit cards or bank cards (a strip of logos is usually displayed above the ATM). Almost all ATMs have a language key to enable you to read the instructions in English. VAT The value-added tax here called KDV is 17%. Hotels typically combine it with a service charge of 10% to 15% and restaurants usually add a 15% service charge. Value-added tax is nearly always included in quoted prices. Certain shops are authorized to refund the tax (ask). ELECTRICITY The electrical current in Turkey is 220 volts 50 cycles alternating current (AC); wall outlets take Continental-type plugs with two or three round prongs. SAFETY & SECURITY The streets of Istanbul are considerably safer than their counterparts in the United States or Western Europe. Travelers should nevertheless take care of their valuables as pickpockets although not as common as in the U.S. or Europe do operate in the major cities and tourist areas. Where the blowing winds from the seven peaks of Anatolian Olympos merge into each other... Where Amazon's cooled their bodies in the waves that break apart from the Black Sea and roll mightily against the shore ... Where love is symbolized in the Tower of Leandros ... Where stand the rocks of Symplegad that brought nightmares to the Argonauts ... Built on seven hills on Asia and Europe ... Capital of three empires ... Where romance and traffic jam go hand in hand ... Lively and exciting ... A world metropolis ... That is Istanbul ... Would you like us to guide you through this legendary city? For the ones who live here for the occasional visitors and for those of you who are entering it for the first time - whichever aspect of this city you want to experience we will help you to reach it easily. BEYAZIT TOWER Almost all houses of old Istanbul were made of wood and fire was therefore a very real threat and caused horrible disasters. This 50 meter high stone fire tower was built in 1828 by famed architects of the Balyan family on order of Sultan Mahmud II. BOSPHORUS During the Byzantine period when the villages along the Bosphorus strait had no roads linking them to each other the people earned their living from fishing and gardening. The Ottoman sultans later had several palaces and villas built on these shores. European side: Dolmabahce Palace with its eclectic structure reflecting western architectural styles was built on the Bosphorus in the19th century. Next is the Besiktas area where stands the statue and tomb of Captain Barbaros Hayrettin in front of the Naval Museum and near the Museum of Fine Arts. On this side of the Bosphorus are many buildings by the Balyan family of architects the most significant of which is the Çiragan Palace.This palace suffered great damage by fire in the late 19th century and lay in ruin until recently when it was restored and made into a hotel. The seaside gateway of the Yildiz Palace and Gardens is also here. Further along the shore are the Feriye palaces then Ortaköy Square and Ortaköy mosque an attractive location where one feels the texture of the city at its best. Next passing under the great columns of the Bosphorus Bridge you pass by Kuruçesme Arnavutköy Bebek Rumelihisari (fortress) Emirgan Üstinye Yeniköy Tarabya Kirecburnu Büyükdere and Sariyer finally reaching the end of the European side of the Bosphorus at Rumeli Kavagi last point before the entrance of the Black Sea. Asian side: Opposite Rumeli Kavagi is Anadolu Kavagi on the Asian side of the mouth of the Bosphorus. South along the shore past Yusa Hill is Beykoz. Though it is quite a distance from city center Istanbul residents usually go to eat the best fish at Beykoz. Next is Pasabahçe famous for its glass and bottle factories as well as liquor factories of the state monopoly. After Pasabahce are Çubuklu and Anadoluhisar (Anatolian Fortress) famed for the good quality of clay on the shores of the Göksu and Küçüksu freshwater rivers that flow into the Bosphorus. Hence the development of pottery making in the area. Next is a bay between Vaniköy and Çengelköy where stands the Kuleli Military Academy. After Çengelköy comes Beylerbeyi and its famous Beylerbeyi Palace. Coming to the sea just past Kuzguncuk is today's Üsküdar known in Byzantine times as the "Golden City." Today this neighborhood is adorned with the Mihrimah the Semsi Pasha and Yeni Valide mosques built by the great architect Sinan and the famous Selimiye barracks. At the meeting point of Kadiköy and Üsküdar stands the Haydarpasa Railway Station last train stop in Asia. Kadiköy (ancient Calchedon) is one of the oldest inhabited districts of the city. Today it has luxury bayside neighborhoods including Moda and Fenerbahce. ISTIKLAL STREET This street formerly called Grande rue de Pera was named Istiklal Caddesi by the Turks. In the 19th century most of the foreign embassies moved to this quarter. Today it is one of the city's leading shopping and entertainment districts . THE GRAND BAZAAR The Grand Bazaar consists of 4000 shops on a series of covered streets leading to a central avenue. The oldest sections are the Sandal Bedesten (cloth auction) and Cevahir Bedesten (jewelry market). The streets are named according to the trades such as gold and silver sellers carpet sellers slipper sellers bootsellers booksellers pursemakers etc. The most oriental atmosphere in Istanbul is found in the bazaar which also houses many good restaurants and cafes. GALATA TOWER The tower was built in 1348 for protection at the northernmost point of the Genovese walls. At that time it was called the ``tower of Jesus". Once it was used as a prison for a period in the Ottoman times. In the 17th century during the reign of Murat IV Hezarfen Ahmet Çelebi flew from this tower on self-made wings and landed in Üsküdar on the opposite shore of the Bosphorus. GOLDEN HORN An old trading point and popular shoreline residential area during the Byzantine period it was largely inhabited by Jewish immigrants from Spain during the Ottoman period. The mixtures of Armenians Greeks Gypsies and Turks living along its shores reflected the city's colorful mosaic. Since 1880 the famed Cibali cigarette factory has been operating there. In Fener is the patriarchate and mother church of the Greek Orthodox Church and nearby the Bulgarian Church built of cast iron in the neo-gothic style. At the far end of the Golden Horn is the Eyüp neighborhood and Eyüp Sultan Mosque the most famous monument of these shores which has drawn countless Muslim pilgrims since the day it was built. On the cliffs above the mosque is the teahouse of Pierre Loti which offers the city's finest view of the Golden Horn. TAKSIM This area was once used as a cemetery. Later a big barracks was built around the square. Today some of these buildings are used by Istanbul Technical University. The Taksim Barrack was torn down in the Republican period. The square was named for the depot located there that regulated the water distribution of the city beginning in Ottoman times. MISIR BAZAAR The bazaar that have been built connected to the Yenicami complex takes its name from the source of the spices in old times.. The merchants of this colorful old covered market also called the Spice Bazaar sell spices herbs medicinals dried fruits and a myriad of other goods in barrels and baskets. Today there are several boutiques found there. SULTANAHMET The most important monumental buildings of the city are found in this section of old Istanbul. Ever since the Roman period the imperial buildings and sanctuaries were situated there. Where Sultanahmet mosque (the "Blue Mosque") stands today imperial palaces had stood and Topkapi Palace stands atop the Roman Acropolis. The great cathedral Hagia Sophia of the Byzantine emperors still stands near Sultanahmet mosque.Sultanahmet is the mosque only mosque in the world with six minarets. All these monuments remain in place with the exception of the famed equestrian statues that once adorned the square and were later carried off by the Crusaders to Venice where they still stand in St. Mark's Cathedral square. Ahmet III Fountain (3. Ahmet Çesmesi): Standing just to the right of the Bab-i-Humayun Gate of Topkapi Palace this fountain is one of the most striking examples of the Baroque style fountains built in the city at the beginning of the 18th century. The fountain has a spout on each of its four sides. The Built Pillar (Örmetas): It is said that the bronze plating that once covered this column was melted down and pressed into coins during the Latin invasion. During the Ottoman period acrobats used to climb up this rather odd-looking column and perform their feats. Egyptian Obelisk (Dikilitas): After the world hegemony had passed to Rome this column was brought from Egypt to Constantinople in 390 A.D. by Emperor Theodosius and placed on a square pedestal in the center of the hippodrome in the spina. The obelisk could also be called as Theodosius Column. Reliefs on the pedestal depict Theodosius watching the races in the hippodrome and tell the story of how the column was erected. The Egyptian hieroglyphics on the column itself tell about sacrifices that thePharaoh Tutmosis made to the god Amon-Ra. The Hippodrome: The hippodrome which was built during the reign of Septimus Severus on the square next to where Sultan Ahmet mosque is located was 480 meters long by 117 meters wide and could contain 100000 people. Many sculptures adorned the walls of the hippodrome. By means of special underground passageways the emperor could reach the hippodrome or Hagia Sophia without leaving the palace. In the center of the arena was the spina around which the horse chariots would race. The hippodrome occupied a very important place in Byzantine social life. The most exciting of the many amusements that took place there were the chariot races between four teams representing the four elements: the blues representing air greens representing earth whites representing water and reds representing fire. In Ottoman times hippodrome became an area where polo games and the circumcision ceremonies of the crown princes took place and named At Meydani. Kaiser Wilhelm Fountain (Alman Çesmesi): This fountain was a gift of the kaiser to the Ottoman sultan. Milion (Milion tasi): Situated today at the corner opposite to Hagia Sophia this stone was known during the era of the Eastern Roman Empire to indicate point zero the forming of the known universe. Serpentine Column (Burmali sutun): This stone made of the bronze shields of Persian soldiers who were killed at the battle of Palatea was brought to Constantinople from the Apollo Temple of Delphi. Its name is derived from the relief of three intertwined snakes that encircle it. It is said that the three snakes once had a golden bowl placed over their heads but this was melted down in order to press coins during the Latin invasion of the city. The two snake heads were lost during the Ottoman period and one of them is now displayed in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. PRE-HISTORY Approximately 300000 years ago Istanbul gave her lands free for settlement in the Yarimburgaz cave beside Kucuk Cekmece Lake. Human beings of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods around the end of the last Ice Age lived within the cave near the lake. Excavations have uncovered tools belonging to the early Paleolithic period (100000 years ago). Human beings of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods around the end of the last Ice Age lived within the cave near the lake. Excavations have uncovered tools belonging to the early Paleolithic period (100000 years ago). In excavations in the Agacli area to the north were found tools from the middle and late Paleolithic periods. There was a significant cultural settlement around 5000 B.C. at Fikirtepe in the Kurbalideredere area which is close to Chalcedon. In the waters of Keras as the sunshine turned into golden reflections on one of the hills ruler of all seas god Poseidon and beauty of beauties Keroessa became parents of a son. They named him Byzas. Byzas grew up and built Byzantion. And the name of the bay Keras became the "Golden Horn" because of the golden reflections. BYZANTION PERIOD Colonialists coming from the city of Megara in central Greece and from the Aegean city of Miletos in 7 B.C. started the history of Byzantion. Built on a peninsula Byzantion was blessed with food from the sea had a safe harbor at the entrance of the Golden Horn and an acropolis that was easily defensible. Its location on the sea trade routes and the fertile lands available for agriculture caused it to flourish within a short period. ROMAN EMPIRE By 200 B.C. it had become difficult for the imperial capital Rome to rule over the vast area that made up the Roman Empire reaching from Spain to Mesopotamia. A new administrative center was needed especially in order to get a firm hold on the eastern part of the empire. Beginning in 146 B.C. Byzantion which was situated at the crossroads of the trade routes became the administrative center of the Eastern Roman Empire and became known as Nea Roma. As the capital city of the eastern part of the empire Nea Roma assumed an important role in world politics and culture. In keeping with this new status new construction was started.Harbors and waterways were reconstructed. In the hippodrome at the center of the city the emperor and nearly the entire population would gather to watch wild animal races and athletic events and enjoy feasts and celebrations. After Emperor Constantine took the throne the city was renamed Constantinopolis (May 11 330) BYZANTINE EMPIRE The Byzantines whose capital was regarded as an extention of Rome expressed more and more the desire to direct themselves toward the heritage of Greek antiquity. The buildings of this period were ornamented withartworks in the style of antiquity. The great cathedral Hagia Sophia stood in all its splendor... The most destructive blow hit the city during the Latin invasions. The invaders did great damage to the city. Homes and religious buildings were subject to arson and looting. After the invasions ended the city started reconstruction work in the year 1261 though it could not be restored to its former glory. Its population formerly 500000 had decreased to 50000. Production of all types diminished and the people suffered from hunger. A 1000-year-old page of history was coming to an end and the city was preparing itself for a rebirth. OTTOMAN EMPIRE In the year 1453 the army of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II (Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror) conquered the city. First of all the oldest buildings and the formerly magnificent but dilapidated city walls were restored. On the ruins of the Byzantine foundations the buildings of the basic institutions of the Ottomans were built. The great water system with its huge cisterns was repaired and returned to use. The city had developed its Ottoman identity resembling its present character. With the addition of the buildings of the famous architect (mimar) Sinan the city had again become the capital of a great empire. Together with the remaining population after the conquest people coming from all over the empire from all kinds of ethnic origins and religions created a colorful mixture. In Istanbul - the new Constantinopolis - the cultural variety brought in by the immigrants enriched the cultural texture of the city.The bedesten where the merchants were settled and the many han where the craftsmen were to be found turned into centers that enabled this harbor city to develop trade with the outside world. Huge markets were built further supporting trade. During the period of the height of Ottoman imperial power the city was covered all over with tulips in what is known as the"Tulip Era." In the 19th century efforts modernization were undertaken. Istanbul entered the 20th century worn out and burdened by its history as the capital city of three great empires. At that time the Ottomans were just about to end their imperial period of 630 years. THE REPUBLICAN ERA After World War I resistance movements became active during the Allied occupation of Istanbul an occupation that lasted for nearly five years. When the resistance movement in Anatolia finally gained success the last of the foreign soldiers left the city on October 5 1923. On October 6 the Turkish army entered the city heralding the message of a new government led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk the leader of the Turkish independence war and his colleagues had made a decision in the new National Assembly that Istanbul would turn over its function as capital of the new nation to Ankara. Under republican rule much new construction activity took place in Istanbul starting with the building of family houses in the 1930s. In 1950s more than 7300 buildings were torn down and the road system reorganized. This caused historic changes in the fabric of the city. When the ferry boats became insufficient to serve the increasing flow of traffic across the Bosphorus between the Asian and the European sides of the city in the 1970's the first suspension bridge was built. Istanbul had assumed an eminent role in the nation's cultural lifeas well as the economy. Immigrants from the rural areas hit the road with the motto "even the soil and the stones in Istanbul are made of gold" leading to much unplanned and devastating construction. On the one hand there are slums built over night and on the other huge shopping centers and giant industrial structures. Such is the world metropolis of republican Istanbul ever changing and developing in all of its aspects.