English Salât (Namâz)

'Dinimizin Direği Namaz' forumunda _Mr.PaNiK_ tarafından 10 Ekim 2008 tarihinde açılan konu

  1. _Mr.PaNiK_

    _Mr.PaNiK_ Üye

    Sponsorlu Bağlantılar
    English Salât (Namâz) konusu
    Konunun ingilizce olma sebebleri bazı arkadaşlarımızın yabancı tanıdıklarına konuyu daha iyi anlatabilmeleri için...

    sitede konuyla ilgili araştırma yapmak isteyipte bulamıyan ziyaretçiler içindir.

    Konu Başlıkları


    The importance of namâz
    Namâz and kufr
    The virtues in namâz
    Those who steal from their own namâz
    The five daily namâzes
    The fards of the namâz
    What amount of najâsat prevents the performance of namâz?
    What is the meaning of awrat parts?
    Istiqbâl-i qibla
    Prayer (namâz) times
    The times at which it is makrûh to perform namâz
    Adhân and iqâmat
    Making niyyat [intention] for the namâz
    The fards that are inside the namâz (rukns)
    How do we perform namâz?
    The namâzes of women
    Things that nullify namâz
    The wâjibs of namâz
    The sunnats of the namâz
    The mustahabs of the namâz










    The importance of namâz


    Since Âdam (alaihissalâm), there was namâz [ritual prayer] once a day in every religion. All that had been performed were brought together and were made fard [commanded] for us. Although performing namâz is not a pillar of îmân [belief], it is a pillar of îmân to believe that namâz is fard. “Namâz” means “duâ.” The ‘ibâdat that is commanded by the Sharî’at and which we all know was named “namâ.” Performing the five daily prayers of namâz is fard-i ’ayn for every Muslim who has reached the age of puberty. That it is fard is openly stated in the Qur’ân and hadîths. Five daily prayers of namâz became a commandment on the Mi’râj night. The Mi’râj happened on the twenty-seventh night of the month of Rajab a year before the Hegira. Before the Mi’râj, only the morning and afternoon prayers were performed. A child must be ordered to perform namâz at the age of seven and should be beaten if it does not perform it at the age of ten. It is also necessary to teach other ibâdats to children at this age, to accustom them to doing them, and to prevent them from sins.

    For the purpose of showing the importance of fard namâz, Muhammad Rabhâmî (rahmatullahi alaih) wrote the Persian book Riyâd-un-nâsihîn, a collection from four hundred and forty-four books, in India in 853 A.H., in the twelfth chapter of the first section of the second part of which he said:

    “In the two fundamental books of Islam called Sahîhayn [Bukhârî and Muslim], Rasûlullah (sall-Allahu alaihi wa sallam) asked in a hadîth-i sherîf reported by Jâbir bin ‘Abdullah (radiy-Allahu ’anh): “If there were a river in front of one’s house and if he washed himself in this river five times every day, would there be any dirt left on him?” We [Jâbir ibn ‘Abdullah and other Sahâbîs present there] said, “No, O Rasûlallah.” The Prophet said, “Likewise, minor sins of those who perform the five daily prayers are forgiven.” [Some ignorant people, upon hearing this hadîth, say, “Then, I will both perform namâz and amuse myself as I wish. My sins will be forgiven anyhow.” This thought is not correct because a namâz that is performed observing its conditions and âdâb and is accepted will cancel sins. In fact, even if minor sins are forgiven, continuing to commit or insisting on minor sins will become grave sins. And insisting on committing grave sins will cause kufr (disbelief.)]

    Ibn Jawzî wrote in Tafsîr-i-Mugnî: “Abû Bakr-i Siddîq (radiy-Allahu ’anh) said that, when the time of a daily prayer of namâz comes, angels say, ‘O the sons of Âdam, stand up! Extinguish the fire prepared to burn human beings by performing namâz.’” In a hadîth-i sherîf, it was said, “The difference between the Believer and the unbeliever is namâz,” that is, the Believer performs namâz, and the unbeliever does not. Munâfiqs, however, sometimes perform it and sometimes do not. Munâfiqs will undergo very bitter torment in Hell. ‘Abdullah ibn Abbâs (radiy-Allahu ’anh), the leader of mufassirs, said that he heard Rasûlullah say, “Those who do not perform namâz will find Allahu ta’âlâ angry on the Day of Resurrection.”

    The imâms of hadîth unanimously said, “People who do not perform a namâz in its due time intentionally, that is, if they are not sorry for not performing a namâz while its due time is ending, will become kâfirs or will lose their îmân during their death. What will become of those who do not remember namâz or see namâz as a duty?” The Ahl as-Sunnat savants unanimously said, “Ibâdât are not a part of îmân.” But there was not a unanimity concerning namâz. The fiqh imâms, Imâm Ahmed Ibn Hanbel, Is’hâq ibn Rahawayh, ‘Abdullah ibn Mubârak, Ibrâhîm Nahâî, Hakem ibn Hutayba, Ayyûb Sahtiyânî, Dâwûd Tâî, Abû Bakr ibn Shayba and Zubeyr ibn Harb and many other great savants, said that one who does not perform a namâz intentionally becomes a kâfir. Then, O Muslim Brother, do not miss any namâz and do not be slack; perform it with love! If Allahu ta’âlâ punishes according to the ijtihâd of these savants on the Day of Judgement, what will you do?

    Tafsîr-i Mugnî says, “One of the superiors asked the devil what he should do to become damned like him. The devil was pleased and said, ‘If you want to be like me, do not pay attention to namâz and take an oath on everything right or wrong, that is take an oath very much!’ That person said, ‘I will never neglect namâz and will not take any oath from now on. ’” In the Hanbalî Madhhab, a Muslim who does not perform a namâz without an excuse will be put to death like a murtad [renegade], and his corpse will not be washed or shrouded, nor will his janâza namâz be performed. He will not be buried in Muslims’ cemetery, and his grave will not be made distinguishable. He will be put in a hollow on the mountain. In the Shâfi’î Madhhab, one who persists in not performing namâz does not become a murtad, but the punishment will be death. That the Mâlikî Madhhab is the same as the Shâfi’î in this respect is written in Ibni ’Âbidîn and on the sixty-third page of the translation of Milal-nihâl. And in the Hanafî Madhhab, he is imprisoned until he begins namâz or beaten until bleeding. [However, he who attaches no importance to namâz or who does not know it as a duty will be a kâfir in all the four madhhabs. It is written in the subject of the afflictions incurred by the tongue in Al-hadîqa that he becomes a kâfir according to the Hanafî Madhhab, too, if he neglects namâz intentionally and does not think of performing its qadâ and does not fear that he will be tormented for this.] Allahu ta’âlâ did not order non-Muslims to perform namâz or to fast. They are not honored with the commandments of Allahu ta’âlâ. They are not punished for not performing namâz or for not fasting. They only deserve Hell, which is the punishment for kufr.

    In the book Zâd-ul-muqwîn, it is said: “Early savants wrote that those who do not do five things are deprived of five things:
    1- They who do not give the zakât of their property do not get any benefit from their property.
    2- In the land and earning of people who do not give their ’ushr, there is no abundance left.
    3- Health is absent in the body of a person who does not give alms.
    4- People who do not pray will not attain to their wishes.
    5- People who do not want to perform a namâz when its
    time comes cannot say the Kalima-i shahâdat at their last breath. A person who does not perform namâz because of laziness although he believes that it is the first duty, is a fâsiq. He is not the peer of a sâliha [pious] girl, that is, he does not deserve and is not suitable for her.” As it is seen, not performing the fard namâz causes one to die without îmân. Continuing to perform namâz causes the enlightenment of the heart and the attainment of endless bliss. Our Prophet (sall-Allahu alaihi wa sallam) declared, “Namâz is nûr,” that is, it brightens the heart in the world and illuminates the Sirât in the next world.” (Riyâd-un-nâsihîn)

    A hadîth-i sherîf, quoted in the book Qurratul’uyûn,
    declares, “If a person does not perform namâz though he has no good excuse, Allahu ta’âlâ will give him fifteen kinds of plague. Six of them will come in the world, three will come at the time of death, three will come in the grave, and three will come when rising from the grave. The six plagues in the world are:

    1- A person who does not perform namâz will not have barakat in his lifetime.
    2- He will not have the beauty, the lovableness peculiar to those who are loved by Allahu ta’âlâ.
    3- He will not be given thawâb for any good he does.
    4- His prayers (duâs) will not be accepted.
    5- No one will like him.
    6- Blessings that (other) Muslims invoked on him will do him no good.

    Kinds of torment he will suffer when dying are:
    1- He will expire in an abhorrent, unsightly, repugnant manner.
    2- He will die hungry.
    3- Much water as he may have, he will die with painful
    thirst.

    Kinds of torment he will suffer in the grave are:
    1- The grave will squeeze him. His bones will intertwine.
    2- His grave will be filled with fire, which will scorch him day and night.
    3- Allahu ta’âlâ will send a huge serpent to his grave. It is not like terrestrial serpents. It will sting him at every prayer time each day. It will never leave him alone any moment.

    Kinds of torment he will suffer after rising are:
    1- Angels of torment that will drag him to Hell will never leave him alone.
    2- Allahu ta’âlâ will meet him with wrath.
    3- His account will be settled in a very vehement manner, and he will be flung into Hell.”

    Namâz and kufr


    Namâz is the most important of the arch-stones of Islam. Allahu ta’âlâ made namâz fard so that His slaves would worship Him only. The hundred and third âyat of Sûrat-un-Nisâ’ purports that namâz became fard, the times of which are definite, for the Believers. A hadîth-i sherîf declares, “Allahu ta’âlâ has made it fard to perform namâz five times every day. Allahu ta’âlâ has promised that He will send to Paradise a person who performs namâz five times every day esteeming it highly and observing its conditions.” Namâz is the most valuable of worships. A hadîth declares, “He who does not perform namâz has no share from Islam!” A hadîth-i sherîf quoted in Mishkât, and in Kunûz-ud-daqâiq, and in Sahîhayn, and in Halabî declares, “Difference between man and disbelief is to give up namâz!” It does not mean, “Men and disbelief are two separate beings. Between them lies not to perform namâz. When not to perform namâz goes away from between them, that is, when a person performs namâz, the connection between him and disbelief goes up, the two cannot be united, and man will not be a disbeliever.” But it means, “Disbelief is a property. It does not exist alone. It exists with some people. People who have disbelief have not performing namâz.But people who do not have disbelief do not have not performing namâz. Difference between a person who has disbelief and one who does not have disbelief is not performing or performing namâz.”

    This hadîth-i sherîf is like the saying, “Difference between man and death is not to breathe.” That is, a person who has death does not breathe. But a person who does not have death does not have (the property) “not breathing.” When a person does not breathe, it will be understood that this one is dead. This hadîth vehemently threatens those who are lazy in performing namâz.


    The virtues in namâz


    Hadrat Imâm-i Rabbânî writes in the 20th Letter of the Second Volume of his Maktûbât:

    “May hamd-u-thanâ be to Allahu ta’âlâ! Salâmat to the good people whom He loves! O My Dear Brother! This world is the place for work. The next world is the place for getting wages. Strive to do pious actions! The most useful of these actions, the most superior worship is to perform namâz. Namâz is the archstone of the dîn [religion]. It is the mi’râj for Believers. Then, one should do one’s best to perform it well. One should observe its precepts, its conditions, its sunnats and adabs in a manner liked and suitable. When performing namâz, one should be careful about its tumânînat [keeping all one’s limbs motionless in rukû (bowing during namâz), in sajda (prostration), in qawma (standing for a while after straightening up from the bowing position), in jalsa (sitting for a while between the two sajdas)] and about the ta’dîl-i-arkân [to remain motionless for a while after becoming calm at these four places]. Many people, paying no attention to these, have been ruining their namâzes. They have been neglecting the tumânînat and the ta’dîl-i-arkân. It was informed that they will be tormented. When namâz is performed correctly, the hope of salvation will increase. For the archstone of the dîn will then have been erected. The plane to fly to endless bliss will have been boarded.”


    Those who steal from their own namâz


    What a great blessing it is when the heart is with Allahu ta’âlâ and the body, together with all the limbs, is embellished with doing the rules of the Sharî’at [Islam]. Recently, most people have been slack in performing namâz. They have been slighting the tumânînat and the ta’dîl-i arkân. For this reason, I have to warn you, my beloved ones, about this matter. Listen well! Our Prophet “sallAllahu alaihi wa sallam” declared: “The worst thief is the person who steals from his own namâz.” When he was asked, “O Rasûlallah! How can a person steal from his own namâz?” he said, “By not doing the rukû and sajda of the namâz properly.”

    At some other time he declared: “Allahu ta’âlâ does not accept the namâz of a person who does not bring his waist into its proper position and remain so for a while in rukû and sajda.” Once, upon seeing a person not doing the rukû and the sajda properly while performing namâz, our Prophet said, “Are you not afraid you may die in some other religion than Hadrat Muhammad’s dîn because you perform your prayers of namâz in this manner?” Once again, he said, “When performing namâz, if you do not straighten up your body completely after the rukû’, if your each limb does not rest at its position for a while when you are standing, your namâz will not be complete.” Once again, he said, “Unless you sit upright between the two sajdas your namâz will remain incomplete.”

    One day, upon seeing someone not observing the rules and rukns [five of the fards of the namâz are inside the namâz. Each of these five fards is also called “a rukn”] of namâz, not standing upright after the ruku’ and not sitting between the sajdas, our Prophet said, “If you go on performing your namâzes in this manner, on the Day of Resurrection you will not be said to be of my Ummat.” At some other time he said, “If you go on in this manner and die, you shall not have died in the religion of Muhammad (alaihissalâm).”

    Abû Hurayra (radiy-Allahu ’anh) says, “The person who has performed all namâzes for sixty years but whose namâz has never been accepted is the person who has not done the ruku’ and sajda properly.”

    It is said in the book Awsât by Tabarânî that if a Believer performs his namâz beautifully and does its ruku’ and sajda properly, the namâz will become happy and will be full of nûr. Angels will take the namâz up to heavens. The namâz will pronounce a benediction on the person who has performed it and will say, “As you have protected me against being defective, may Allahu ta’âlâ protect you.” If the namâz is not performed well, it will become black. Angels will snub that namâz and will not take it up to the heavens. The namâz will curse the person who has performed it and will say, “As you have wasted me and put me into a bad position, may Allahu ta’âlâ waste you.” Then, we should try to perform our namâzes properly, observe the ta’dîl-i arkân, do the ruku’, the sajda, the qawma and the jalsa well. Also, we should warn others if we see them do these defectively. We should help our brothers-in-Islam perform namâz properly. We should be an example in observing the ta’dîl-i arkân and the tumânînat. Most Muslims have been depriving themselves of the honour of doing this. This blessing has already been lost. It is very important to revivify this good deed. Our Prophet declared: “He who resuscitates any one of my forgotten sunnats will be given the thawâb of a hundred martyrs.” (Maktûbât, Second Volume, 69th Letter)


    The five daily namâzes


    It is fard [obligatory] for every Muslim who is sane and has reached the age of puberty to perform the five daily namâzes (prayers). When a prayer time comes, it becomes fard for him/her the moment he/she begins performing the prayer. If he/she has not performed it and if there is time left enough to make an ablution and begin the namâz before the prayer time is over, it becomes fard for him/her to perform it. If the prayer time is over before he/she has performed it without an ‘udhr [good excuse] not to do so, he/she will have committed a grave sin. Whether he/she has had a good excuse or not, qadâ will be necessary.

    [‘udhr [good excuse]: by a good excuse we mean a situation which Islam recognizes as an excuse that will absolve a Muslim from the responsibility of not performing an Islamic commandment. An excuse of this sort is termed ‘udhr.]

    The same applies to situations such as when a child reaches puberty, when a disbeliever or a renegade becomes a Muslim, when a woman becomes canonically clean (i.e. immediately after the cessation of the menses at the end of a menstrual or lochial period), when an insane or unconscious person recovers, and when a sleeping person wakes up. It is fard for a new Muslim to learn the essentials (conditions) of namâz first. After learning them, it becomes fard to perform namâz.

    Sleep is not a good excuse if it begins after the prayer time has begun. If you do so, it is fard for you to make sure that you will wake up before the prayer time is over, while it would be mustahab for you to make sure to wake up before the end of the prayer time if you were to go to sleep before the beginning of the prayer time.

    These five daily prayers add up to forty rak’ats (units), out of which seventeen are fard [obligatory], three are wâjib [almost as compulsory as fard, so not to be omitted], and twenty are sunnat [act, thing, though not commanded by Allahu ta’âlâ, done and liked by the Prophet (‘alaihissalâm) as an act of worship]:

    1- Morning prayer [Salât-ul-fajr] consists of four rak’ats. First, two rak’ats of the sunnat prayer are performed. Then the fard prayer, of two rak’ats, is performed. The sunnat (the first two rak’ats) is very important. Some scholars classify it as wâjib.

    2- Early afternoon prayer [Salât-uz-zuhr] consists of ten rak’ats, the initial sunnat consisting of four rak’ats, the fard consisting of four rak’ats, and the final sunnat consisting of two rak’ats. The early afternoon prayer is performed in this order.

    3- Late afternoon prayer [Salât-ul-’asr] consists of eight rak’ats. First the sunnat, which consists of four rak’ats, and then the fard, which consists of four rak’ats, are performed.

    4- Evening prayer [Salât-ul-maghrib] contains five rak’ats. First the fard, which is composed of three rak’ats, then the sunnat, consisting of two rak’ats, are performed.

    5- Night prayer [Salât-ul-’ishâ] consists of thirteen rak’ats. The initial sunnat contains four rak’ats. The fard also contains four rak’ats, and the final sunnat has two rak’ats. After performing these ten rak’ats, you perform the witr prayer which is wâjib.

    The initial sunnats of the late afternoon prayer and night prayer are ghayr-i muakkada [unemphatic, omittied from time to time by our blessed Prophet]. When sitting during their second rak’at, after reciting the Attahiyyâtu … , the prayers of Allahumma salli ‘alâ ... and ... bârik ‘alâ ... are recited completely. After standing up for the third rak’at, the prayer Subhânaka ... is recited before saying the Basmala. But the first sunnat of the early afternoon prayer is muakkad [emphatic, practised regularly by our blessed Prophet. They are the shi’âr (symptoms) of the Islâmic religion]. That is, it has been commanded emphatically. There are more thawâbs (blessings) for it. During its second rak’at, as in the fard prayers, only the Attahiyyâtu is said and then we stand up for the third rak’at. After standing up, we first recite the Basmala and then the sûra of Fâtiha.

    It is mustahab to perform four more rak’ats after the fard of early afternoon and night prayers and six more rak’ats after the fard of the evening prayer. In other words, it is very blessed. One can perform all of them with one salâm or by saying the salâm after every two rak’ats. In either case the first two rak’ats are deemed to be the final sunnat. These prayers, which are mustahab, can be performed separately after the final sunnats of the two namâzes as well.

    The first rak’at commences with the beginning of the prayer and the other rak’ats begin right after standing up, and each rak’at continues until one stands up again. The final rak’at continues until the salâm. No prayers can be less than two rak’ats. All prayers contain an even number of rak’ats, except the fard of the evening prayer and the witr prayer. After the second sajda (prostration) of each second rak’at, we sit. Each rak’at of prayer contains its fards, wâjibs, sunnats, mufsids [things or acts which nullify a prayer], and makrûhs [acts that are improper, disliked, or abstained by the Prophet].


    The fards of the namâz


    Question: What are the fards [obligatory acts; if any of them is omitted, the namâz will be invalid] of the namâz?
    ANSWER
    Namâz has 12 fards. Six of them are inside and the other six are outside the namâz. The fards that are inside are termed rukns while those that are outside are termed sharts.

    A- The fards that are outside the namâz:
    1- Tahârat from hadas:
    It means the performance of an ablution by a person who does not have it and performance of a ghusl by those who are junub and who has got out of the states of haid [menstruation] and nifâs [puerperium].

    2- Tahârat from najâsat:
    People who is to perform namâz must purify their bodies, clothes, the places to perform namâz from najâsat, that is, from the things that are declared to be religiously dirty.

    3- Satr-i awrat:
    It is to cover awrat parts. Those body parts of people which are harâm [prohibited] for them to open and show others and for others to look at during namâz, or any time, are termed awrat parts. A man’s awrat parts are between his navel and lower parts of his knees. As for a woman, all parts of her body, except her face and hands, are her awrat parts.

    4- Istiqbâl-i-qibla:
    It is to perform a namâz towards the qibla.

    5- Waqt:
    It is to perform namâzes in their due times.

    6- Niyyat:
    It is to make niyyat [intention] by passing through heart when one begins a namâz. It is not considered a niyyat to say orally only. To make niyyat for the namâz means passing through heart its name, time, qibla, and wishing to follow the imâm (if it is performed in jamâ’at). Niyyat is made while saying the takbîr of iftitâh [saying Allahu akbar while beginning namâz].

    B- The fards that are inside the namâz:
    1- Takbîr of iftitâh:
    It means saying “Allahu akbar” when beginning namâz. No other word to replace it is acceptable.

    2- Qiyâm:
    It means standing when performing namâz. Those who are too ill to stand perform it sitting, and if too ill to sit, they lie down on their back and perform namâz with their head (by moving, nodding, etc.their head).

    3- Qiraât:
    It means reciting a sûra [a chapter of the Qur’ân al-karîm] or an âyat [a verse of the Qur’ân al-karîm] of the Qur’ân al-karîm.

    4- Ruku’:
    It means bending and putting the hands on the knees after finishing the qiraât.

    5- Sajda:
    It means prostrating on the ground after the ruku’.

    6- Qa’da-i-âkhira [last sitting]:
    It means sitting in the last rak’at as long as it would take to say the prayer “Attahiyyâtu.”


    What amount of najâsat prevents the performance of namâz?


    Question: What does tahârat from najâsat mean?
    ANSWER
    It means that there must be no najâsat [substances which Islam prescribes as dirty] or impurity on the body, on the clothes of people performing namâz [ritual prayer] or on the place where they perform namâz. A kerchief, a headgear, a skull-cap, a turban, masts [waterproof shoes covering the part of the foot which is fard to wash (in ablution)] and na’ls [clogs] are considered clothings. Since the hanging part of a scarf wrapped around one’s neck moves as one moves when performing the namâz, it is included with the clothes, and the namâz will not be accepted if the rest of the cloth is not clean. When those parts where one steps and puts one’s head on the cloth spread on the ground are clean, the namâz will be accepted even if there is najâsat on its other parts. For the cloth, unlike the scarf, is not united with the body. But the namâz of a person carrying urine in a closed bottle is not accepted. For the bottle is not the place where the urine is produced. [Hence it is not permissible to perform namâz while you have in your pocket a closed bottle of blood, tincture of iodine or spirit; or a closed box containing a bloody handkerchief or a piece of cloth smeared with najâsat.]

    The places where your two feet step and where you put your head must be clean. The namâz performed on cloth, glassware or nylon spread or put on najâsat is accepted. There is no harm done if your skirt touches some dry najâsat when prostrating.

    If the qaba [heavy] najâsat is not as much as one dirham [a unit of weight that is equal to 4.8 g] or more on one’s skin or clothes or on the place where one performs the namâz, the namâz will be accepted. But if there is as much as a dirham, it is makrûh tahrîmî [an improper, disliked act which is close to harâm], and it is wâjib [essential, almost obligatory, almost as compulsory as fard, so not to be omitted] to wash it. If it is more than a dirham, it is fard [obligatory] to wash it. If it is less than a dirham, it is sunnat [act, thing, though not commanded by Allâhu ta’âlâ, done and liked by the Prophet (‘alaihissalâm) as an act of worship] to wash it. Some scholars say that it is fard to wash away even a drop of wine. According to the Imâmayn [Imâm-i Abû Yûsuf and Imâm-i Muhammad, the two great scholars in the Hanafî Madhhab] and the other three madhhabs, it is fard to wash even a mote of any qaba najâsat completely. Najâsat is measured according to how much najâsat is on you when starting to perform the namâz, not when you are smeared with it.

    A dirham is a weight of one mithqal, that is, four grams and eighty centigrams of solid najâsat. With fluid najâsat, it is an area as large as the surface of the water in the palm of one’s open hand. When solid najâsat less than one mithqal is spread over an area larger than the palm of a hand on one’s clothes, it does not nullify the namâz.

    There are two kinds of najâsat:
    1- Qaba [heavy, ghalîz] najâsat: All things that necessitate an ablution or a ghusl when they issue from the human body, flayed but not tanned skin, flesh, excrement and urine of those animals whose flesh cannot be eaten [except a bat] and of their young; blood of man and of all animals; wine, carrion, pork, excrement of domestic fowls, excrement of pack animals and sheep and goats are ghalîz, that is, qaba.

    2- Khafîf [light] najâsat: When one-fourth of a limb or a fourth of one’s clothes is smeared with khafîf najâsat, it does not negatively affect the namâz. The urine of edible quadruped animals and the excrement of those birds whose flesh is not edible are khafîf. The excrement of such edible fowls as pigeons and sparrows is clean.

    Raki and spirit obtained from distilled wine are qaba najâsat, and, like wine, it is harâm [prohibited] to drink them. Before beginning namâz, blood, spirit, or alcoholic drinks must be cleaned from one’s clothes and skin. When they evaporate, the place they exist does not become purified. If one has a bottle containing these substances or other such things in one’s pocket, one must take them out.

    Najâsat can be cleaned with clean water, with water that has been used for an ablution or a ghusl, or with nonviscous liquids, such as vinegar and rose-water. Water that has been used for an ablution or a ghusl is called musta’mal water. This water is clean, but not a cleaner of hadas [the state of being without an ablution or a ghusl]. Najâsat can be cleaned with it; however, one cannot make another ablution or ghusl by using that water.

    What is the meaning of awrat parts?


    Question: What is the meaning of “awrat parts”? How to cover oneself in order to obey it during namâz?
    ANSWER
    Those parts of a discreet and pubescent person’s body that are harâm [prohibited] for him/her to leave uncovered during the performance of a namâz and/or whenever in company, and which are equally harâm for others to look at, are called awrat parts. Men and women were commanded to cover their awrat parts through the Sûras of Ahzâb and Nûr, which were revealed in the third year of the Hegira. In the Hanafî and Shâfi’î Madhhabs, a man’s awrat parts for namâz are between his navel and lower parts of his knees. The knees are awrat in the Hanafî and the navel is awrat in the Shâfi’î. The namâz performed with these parts open is not acceptable. When performing the namâz, it is sunnat for men to cover their other parts [arms, head, and feet]. It is makrûh for them to perform the namâz with these parts exposed.

    As for women, their all parts, except their palms and faces, including their wrists, outer parts of their hands, their hair and feet are awrat for namâz in the four madhhabs. There are also valuable books saying that outer parts of hands are not awrat. According to them, it is permissible for women to perform namâz while outer parts of their hands up to wrists are bare. But, for having followed all the books, it is better for women to perform namâz wearing a gown with sleeves long enough, or a head cover large enough, to cover their hands. If one-fourth of a man’s or woman’s awrat part remains bare as long as one rukn, the namâz becomes annulled. If a smaller part remains exposed, the namâz does not become nullified. Thin tissue that lets the shape or colour of the thing under it be seen is equal to none.

    When a sick person who lies naked under a blanket performs namâz by signs with his head inside the blanket, he has performed it naked. If he performs it keeping his head outside the blanket, he will have performed it by covering himself, which is acceptable.

    When alone and not performing namâz, it is fard for women to cover between their knees and navels, wâjib to cover their backs and bellies, and adab to cover their other parts.

    It is harâm for men to look at the awrat parts of other men and for women to look at those of other women. As it is harâm for men to look at women’s awrat parts and vice versa, so it is equally harâm for men and women to look at the awrat parts of their own sexes. A man’s part of awrat for other men are the same as those of a woman for other women: the area between the knees and navel. In the Hanafî Madhhab, the knees are awrat, but the navel is not awrat. Likewise, the awrat parts of a woman for other women are as such. A woman’s parts of awrat for men nâ-mahram to her, on the other hand, are all her body with the exception of the hands and face. It is harâm to look at the awrat parts of nâ-mahram women even without the feeling of lust.

    [mahram: one of the eighteen women whom Islam has prescribed as a man’s close relatives, and vice versa; nâ-mahram: not one of the eighteen women whom Islam has prescribed as a man’s close relatives, and vice versa.] It is purported in the Qur’ân al-karîm:
    (O My Messenger, “sall-Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam”! Tell the Believers not to look at harâms and to protect their awrat parts against harâms! Tell those women who have îmân not to look at harâms and to protect their awrat parts from committing harâms.) [Sûrat-un-Nûr 30]

    It is stated in hadîth-i sharîfs:
    (The eyes of a person who looks at a nâ-mahram woman lustfully will be filled with fire and he will be flung down into Hell. The arms of a person who shakes hands with a nâ-mahram woman will be tied around his neck and then he will be sent down to Hell. Those who talk with a nâ-mahram woman lustfully without any necessity will remain in Hell a thousand years for each word.) [Riyâd-un-nâsihîn]

    (Looking at one’s neighbour’s wife or at one’s friends’ wives is ten times as sinful as looking at nâ-mahram women. Looking at married women is one thousand times as sinful as looking at girls. So are the sins of fornication.) [Riyâd-un-nâsihîn]

    (On the Day of Judgment, melted hot lead will be poured into the eyes of those who look lustfully at the faces of women who are nâ-mahram to them.) [Majma’ul-anhur]

    (If a person, upon seeing a nâ-mahram girl, fears Allah’s torment and turns his face away from her, Allahu ta’âlâ will make him enjoy the taste of worships.) [Hâkim, Bayhaqî, Abû Dâwud]

    A man, if he feels secure of lust, can look at the heads, faces, necks, arms, legs below the knees of the eighteen women who are harâm for him to marry by nikâh [Islamic marriage contract]. He cannot look at their breasts, at spaces under their arms, at their flanks, thighs, knees, or upper parts of their back.
    Paternal and maternal uncles’ or paternal or maternal aunts’ sons are not mahram to a woman. The situation is the same with brothers-in-law of a woman. It is harâm for her to talk to them, joke with one another, or to stay alone [halwat] with them in the same room. It is, in turn, harâm for a man to talk to his sisters-in-law and paternal or maternal uncles’ and paternal or maternal aunts’ daughters.

    It is etarnally harâm for a man to marry eighteen mahram women. He can talk to and stay alone with them in the same room. A woman, in the same way, cannot marry eighteen mahram men.

    It is gravely sinful for women to go out with bare head, hair, arms and legs, to let their voice be heard by nâ-mahram men without necessity, to sing to them, to let them hear their voices through films or records or by reading the Qurân-al karîm or by reciting the mawlid or the adhân.

    Seven or ten year old attractive girls as well as all girls who have reached the age of fifteen or the age of puberty are equivalents to women. It is harâm for such girls to show themselves with bare head, hair, arms and legs to nâ-mahram men, or to sing to them, or to talk to them softly and gracefully. Women are permitted to talk to nâ-mahram men seriously in a manner that will not cause fitna when there is necessity such as buying and selling.

    It is harâm for women and girls to go out with dresses that are thin or tight or of fur, wearing their ornaments such as ear-rings and bracelets without covering them, wearing like men, cutting their hair short like men. Therefore, it is not permissible for them to wear trousers, not even ample ones. Trousers are men’s clothing.

    It is declared in a hadîth-i sharîf:
    (Those women who dress themselves like men and those men who ornament themselves like women are accursed.) [Targhîb-us-salât]


    Istiqbâl-i qibla


    Question: What does the term “istikbâl-i qibla”, which is one of the conditions of namâz, mean?
    ANSWER
    It means performing namâz towards the Qibla; it does not mean performing it for the Qibla. Qibla is the direction of the building of Ka’ba located in Mecca. Formerly the Qibla used to be Quds (Jerusalem). Seventeen months after the Hegira, at the third rak’at of the early afternoon or late afternoon prayer of a Tuesday in the middle of Sha’bân, Muslims were çöcommanded to turn towards Ka’ba. According to Hanafî and Mâlikî Madhhabs, namâz will be accepted if the opening between the crosswise directions of the optic nerves includes Ka’ba. This angle is approximately 45°.

    The Qibla is not the building of Ka’ba; it is its building plot. That is, that space from the Earth to ’Arsh is the Qibla. For this reason, a person who is down in a well, [under the sea], on top of a high mountain [or on a plane] can perform namâz in that direction.

    It is permissible, even when performing the namâz that is fard, to deviate from the direction of Qibla when there is the fear of illness, enemy or thief, or by mistake, but it is a must to turn towards the Qibla when performing it on a ship or train.

    At places where there is no mihrâb [it is a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla] and where the Qibla cannot be found by calculation or with the help of the Pole-Star [a compass], true Muslims who know which direction the Qibla is must be consulted. We should not ask disbelievers, fâsiqs [people who sin frankly], or children. Disbelievers and sinners can be believed in mu’amalât (business transactions and social dealings), but not in diyânât [worships]. When you have no one with you who knows about the Qibla, you need not look for one. You must search for it yourself and then perform namâz towards the direction you have decided to be the Qibla. If later you find out that it was the wrong direction, you do not have to perform the namâz again.

    If people who do not know the direction of Qibla perform namâz without looking at the mihrâb or asking someone who knows or trying to find out, their namâz will not be accepted even if they have found the Qibla by chance. But if they find out after the namâz that they have found the right direction, it will be accepted. If they find it out during the namâz, it will not be accepted. If they have inquired for the Qibla but have not performed the namâz in the direction which they have decided to be right, they have to perform it again even if they understand that they have found the right direction by chance.

    Likewise, people who perform namâz though they think that they do not have an ablution, that their clothes are najs, or that it is not prayer time yet, and who find out later that their thought has not been correct, perform the namâz again.

    [To determine the direction of Qibla, a rod is erected at a place taking sunrise. Or a key or a piece of stone tied to the end of a piece of string and let to hang loosely. At (the time of Qibla) read on the daily calendar, the shadow of the rod or the string shows the direction of qibla, as the Sun is overhead the direction of qibla. The Sun is on the Qibla side of the shadow.]


    Prayer (namâz) times


    It is fard [obligatory duty] for all Muslims, male or female alike, who are ’âqil and bâligh, that is, who are sane and have reached the age of puberty or, in other words, the age for marriage, to perform the five daily prayers termed namâz within their correct times. If a namâz is performed before the beginning of the time prescribed by Islam, it will not be sahîh [acceptable]. In fact, it will be a grave sin to do so. As it is fard to perform a namâz in its correct time for it to be acceptable, it is also fard to know without any feeling of doubt that you have performed it in its correct time.

    [When a girl first begins menstruating, she becomes a bâligha (adolescent). A boy whose genitalia has started producing spermatozoa becomes a bâligh. From that day forth, they are responsible for the commands and prohibitions of Islam.The age limit for them to be considered as such is 9 for girls and 12 for boys. A boy who has not had sperm yet and a girl who has not experienced the menses are counted bâligh and bâligha once they are beyond the age of 15.]

    It is declared in a hadîth-i sharîf:
    (There is a beginning and an end of the time of each salât.) [Targhîb-us-salât]

    Prayer times
    A hadîth-i sharîf quoted in the books Muqaddimat-us-salât, Tafsîr-i Mazharî, Halabî states:

    “Jabrâîl alaihissalâm (and I performed namâz together, and Jabrâîl ‘alaihissalâm) conducted the namâz as the imâm for two of us, by the side of the door of Ka’ba, for two days running. We two performed the morning prayer as the fajr (morning twilight) dawned; the early afternoon prayer as the Sun departed from meridian; the late afternoon prayer when the shadows of things became as long as their lengths; the evening prayer as the Sun set [its upper edge disappeared]; and the night prayer when the evening twilight darkened. The second day, we performed the morning prayer when the morning twilight matured; the early afternoon prayer when the lengths of the shadows of things increased by twice as much as their lengths, the late afternoon prayer immediately thereafter; the evening prayer at the prescribed time of breaking fast; and the night prayer at the first one-third of the night. Then he said ‘Oh Muhammad, these are the times of prayers for you and the prophets before you. Let your Ummat perform each of these five prayers between the two times at which we performed each.’”

    1- The time for morning prayer at a certain location begins, an all four madhhabs, at the end of shar’î night [canonical night], which in turn is when the whiteness called fajr sâdiq [true dawn] is seen at one of the points on the line of apparent horizon [ufq-i zâhirî] in the east. This time is also the beginning of fast.

    Chief of Astronomy Department Ârif Bey reports: “Because there are weak reports saying that fajr sâdiq [true dawn] begins when the whiteness spreads over the horizon and the altitude of the Sun is -18° or even -16°, it is judicious and safe to perform the morning prayer 20 minutes later than the time shown on calendars.”

    The time of morning prayer ends at the end of solar night, which is when the preceding [upper] edge of the Sun is observed to rise from the line of apparent horizon.

    2- The time for early afternoon prayer starts after the shadows of the things begin gaining length when they are short. This prayer time lasts until the shadows of the things become as long as or twice as long as their lengths. The former is according to the Imâmayn [Imâm-i Abû Yûsuf and Imâm-i Muhammad] while the latter is according to Imâm-i A’zam.

    3- The time of late afternoon prayer begins at the end of the time of early afternoon prayer, and this happens in the following manner:
    a- According to the Imâmayn, it begins when the shadow of an object becomes as long as its length and continues until the Sun disappears.
    b- According to Imâm-i A’zam, it begins when the shadow of an object becomes twice as long as its length and continues until the Sun disappears.

    However, it is harâm [prohibited] to postpone the prayer until the Sun turns yellow, an event that takes place when the distance between the Sun’s lower edge and the line of apparent horizon is a spear’s length, which is five angular degrees. The only prayer that Muslims are allowed to perform during the period of sunset is the day’s late afternoon prayer, which they have somehow failed to perform till then.

    4- The time of evening prayer begins when the Sun apparently sets; that is, when its upper edge is seen to disappear below the line of apparent horizon of the observer’s location. The canonical and solar nights also begin at this time.

    The time of evening prayer continues until the time of
    night prayer. It is sunnat to perform the evening prayer within its early time. It is harâm to perform it in the time of ishtibâk-i nujûm, that is, when the number of visible stars increases, that is, after the rear edge of the Sun has sunk down to an altitude of 10° below the line of apparent horizon. For reasons such as illness, traveling, or in order to eat food that is ready, it might be postponed until that time.

    5- The time of night prayer begins according to the Imâmayn, with ’ishâ-i-awwal, that is, when the redness on the line of apparent horizon in the west disappears. The same rule applies in the other three madhhabs. According to Imâm-i A’zam it begins with ’ishâ-i-thânî, that is, after the whiteness disappears. When the time of night prayer begins according to the Imâmayn, if people wait for half an hour and then performs this namâz, they will have performed it by obeying all imâms.

    It ends at the end of canonical night, that is, with the whiteness of fajri-sâdiq (true dawn) according to Hanafî Madhhab.

    It is mustahab to perform the morning prayer when it gets rather light everywhere in every season; this is called “isfâr.” It is mustahab to perform the early afternoon prayer in jamâ’at late on hot days in summer and early on winter days. Performing the evening prayer early is mustahab always. And it is mustahab to perform the night prayer as late as one-third of the canonical night, i.e., by the end of the first one-third of the time between ghurûb (sunset) and fajr (dawn). It is makrûh tahrîmî to postpone it beyond the time of midnight. These postponements apply only to those who perform namâz in jamâ’at. One who performs alone at home should perform every prayer as soon as its time begins.

    (The most valuable ’ibâda is the salât performed in its early time.) [Hâkim, Tirmudhî]

    (Such a time will come when directors and imâms will kill the salât; [that is,], they will postpone it till the expiration of its [prescribed] time. You should perform your salât within its time! If they perform in jamâ’at after you [have performed it], perform it again together with them! The one you perform the second time will become nâfila [supererogatory].) [Muslim]

    It will be precautionary to perform the late afternoon and night prayers according to Imâm-i A’zam’s report. Those who will not be able to wake up later should perform the witr prayer right after the night prayer. Those who perform it before night prayer should reperform it. And those who can wake up should perform it towards the end of the night.


    The times at which it is makrûh to perform namâz


    Question: At which times is it harâm [prohibited] to perform namâz [ritual prayer]? When do these time periods end?
    ANSWER
    There are three times at which it is makrûh tahrîmî to perform namâz. A namâz is not valid if it is fard [obligatory] and is started at one of these times. If it is supererogatory, it will be valid but will be makrûh tahrîmî. Supererogatory prayers begun at these times must be stopped and performed later (must be made qadâ later). These three times are the period of sunrise, that of sunset and the period when the sun is at zawâl [midday, the time at which the Sun leaves its highest point from the horizon and after which the time of early afternoon prayer begins].

    Here, the period of sunrise is until the time of ishrâq [the time when the lower edge of the Sun is as high as the length of a spear from the line of the apparent horizon]. The time of zawâl begins when there are only twenty minutes left for the early afternoon prayer. The period of sunset begins when the Sun, or the places where its light emanates, become yellow enough to be looked at as it sinks. The duration of this period varies between 40 and 45 minutes. While the sun is setting, only the late afternoon prayer of that day can be performed. However, it is makrûh tahrîmî to delay the late afternoon prayer until this time. (Ethics of Islâm)

    Question: How long, in minutes, are the time periods in which performing supererogatory prayers is makrûh tahrîmî?
    ANSWER
    It cannot be said precisely. One is 45-50 minutes till the time for the evening namâz. This time period never goes below 40 minutes in length. Another period of time in which it is makrûh to perform supererogatory prayers is the time for the morning prayer. It is from imsâk [fajr, the time when fasting begins] till sunrise. The third time is the 50-minute period after sunrise. One other is about 20 minutes before the time for the early afternoon prayer. These figures are not 100% accurate, they fluctuate within a range of a few minutes.

    Question: Is it an inconvenience to recite the Qur’ân al-karîm, to pray or to perform other acts of worship during the times at which it is makrûh to perform namâz?
    ANSWER
    It is only namâz which one should not perform. It is not an inconvenience to recite the Qur’ân al-karîm, to pray, or to perform other acts of worship. (Durar)

    Question: At the karâhat time [the time wherein it is not permissible to perform namâz] before the evening prayer, if, say, there are only 10-15 minutes left for the evening adhân [calling for prayer], which one of the following is more appropriate: to perform the late afternoon prayer, or to leave it to qadâ [to postpone the namâz till after its prescribed time is over]?
    ANSWER
    It is fard to perform the late afternoon prayer even if there are three seconds left for the evening prayer time to begin. In other words, if there is enough time to say “Allahu akbar”, it is fard to perform the namâz, it would be harâm not to perform. In the case that one has 10-15 minutes before the prescribed time is over, it is a grave sin, harâm not to perform it. It is as such for all other daily prayers except the morning prayer. If there is enough time to say “Allahu akbar”, one must perform the namâz and it will have been performed in its prescribed time. If the namâz is postponed till that time with an excuse, it would not even be makrûh. It is certainly makrûh tahrîmî if it is postponed with a minor excuse. However, it is a graver sin to leave it to qadâ.


    Adhân and iqâmat


    Question: What do the words in the adhân [call to prayer] mean?
    ANSWER
    There are seven words in the adhân.
    1- Allahu akbar:
    Allahu ta’âlâ is great. He needs nothing. He is so great that He does not need the worships of His slaves. Worships are of no benefit to Him.
    In order to settle this well in minds, this word is repeated four times.

    2- Ash'hadu an lâ ilâha ill-Allah:
    Though on account of His greatness, He does not need anyone's worship. I bear witness and certainly believe that none besides Him is worthy of being worshipped. Nothing is like Him.

    3- Ash'hadu anna Muhammadan rasûlullah:
    I bear witness and believe that Hadrat Muhammad “alaihi wa alâ âlihissalâtu wa sallam” is the Prophet sent by Him, that he is the communicant of the way of the worships liked by Him, that only those worships communicated and shown by him are worthy of Allahu ta’âlâ.

    4- and 5- Hayya‘alassalâh-hayya‘alalfalâh:
    These are the two words inviting Believers to the namâz which brings happiness and salvation.

    6- Allahu akbar:
    No one could manage the worship worthy of Him. He is so great, so far from anybody's worship being worthy of Him or suitable for Him.

    7- Lâ ilâha ill-Allah:
    He, alone, has the right to be worshipped, for us to humiliate ourselves before. Along with the fact that no one can do the worship worthy of Him, no one besides Him is worthy of being worshipped.

    Question: What does the term adhân mean?
    ANSWER
    Adhân is to recite certain Arabic phrases in prescribed order. It is not adhân to say its translation.

    Question: Is it necessary to say the adhân at a high place?
    ANSWER
    Yes, it is sunnat [act, thing, though not commanded by Allahu ta’âlâ, done and liked by the Prophet as an act of worship] to call it at a district mosque and at a high place.

    Question: What do lines below mean?
    The line added to the adhân of the morning prayer:
    “As-salâtu khayrun minan-nawm”
    ANSWER
    It means that the namâz [ritual prayer] is better than sleep.

    Question: The line added when saying the iqâmat [the words recited while standing before beginning one of the five daily fard prayers]:
    “Qad qâmatis-salâh”
    ANSWER
    It means that the namâz has begun.

    Question: Is it fard [obligatory] for men to call the adhân for the five daily prayers, for performing the omitted [qadâ] prayers, and towards the khatîb at Friday prayers?
    ANSWER
    It is not fard but sunnat, yet it is termed sunnat-i hudâ. That is, it is sunnat-i muakkada which does not exist in any other religion.

    Question: Is it necessary for women to call the adhân and the iqâmat?
    ANSWER
    No. If they call, it is makrûh because it is harâm [prohibited] for women to raise their voices. (This is [that is, not say the adhân for women] also one of the proofs that it is harâm for women to let their voices be heard by nâ-mahram men.)

    Question: If the adhân is called before its prescribed time, will it be valid?
    ANSWER
    It will not be valid. It must be called again.

    Question: Is it permissible to call the adhân by making taghanni [to recite with a melodious voice] to the extent that one adds vowel points or letters or prolongs them?
    ANSWER
    No, it is not permissible.

    [Taghannî [reciting melodiously] divides into two categories as sunnat and harâm. The taghannî which is sunnat is to recite it compatibly with tajwîd. The latter, which is harâm, is to resonate your voice in your larynx so as to produce various sounds, and it causes words to defile. It is not permissible to recite by making taghannî, that is by defiling the words. As is seen, if saying the words melodiously does not defile their meaning, if the letters are not prolonged by a length of two letters, and if it is intended to beautify the voice and to embellish the recitation, it is permissible. In fact, it is mustahab to do so when performing namâz as well as when not performing namâz.]

    Question: Is it necessary to call the adhân and the iqâmat for the namâzes of witr, 'Iyd [Eid], tarâwîh, and janâza [funeral]?
    ANSWER
    They are not called.

    Question: Which one is more meritorious between the adhân and iqâmat?
    ANSWER
    Saying the iqâmat is better than (saying) the adhân.

    Question: The adhân is sometimes called by turning to the right or to the left on a minaret. Is it not necessary to say the adhân towards the qibla?
    ANSWER
    Yes, the adhân and iqâmat are said towards the qibla.

    Question: For whom is it makrûh to call the adhân?
    ANSWER
    It is makrûh tahrîmî for a junub, a woman, a sinner, a drunk, and a small child to call the adhân.

    Question: Is it permissible to say the adhân by sitting?
    ANSWER
    It is makrûh tahrîmî [makrûh with much stress, it is close to harâm].

    Question: When performing a couple of qadâ [make up] namâzes, does it suffice to say one adhân for all?
    ANSWER
    Yes, it does. One who performs a couple of qadâ prayers one after another should say the adhân and the iqâmat first. Then, before performing each of the following qadâ prayers, one should say the iqâmat. It will be all right if one does not say the adhân for the following prayers of qadâ.

    Question: Is it necessary for a person performing the time's namâz individually at home or in jamâ’at to say the adhân and iqâmat?
    ANSWER
    It is not necessary. For the adhân and iqâmat said in mosques are considered to be said at homes, too. But it is better to say them. If the adhân is not called in accordance with the sunnat, one should say the adhân.

    Question: Is it necessary for a safarî [traveler] person to say the adhân and iqâmat?
    ANSWER
    A traveler says the adhân and iqâmat even when performing namâz individually in a house. For the adhân called at a mosque does not include his namâz. If some of the safarî people say the adhân in a house, those who perform the (same) namâz later on at the same place do not say it.

    Question: What is the reverence for the adhân?
    ANSWER
    Reverence for the adhân is to call it without changing its letters, without making taghanni and to say it on the minaret as prescribed by the sunnat.
    It is stated in a hadîth-i sharîf:
    (A muadhdhin [a person who calls adhân] attains the thawâb equalling that of the people performing the namâz with him. However, there is not any decrease in the thawâb of those people.) [Nasâî]

    Question: Is it necessary for a person hearing the adhân to repeat it?
    ANSWER
    Yes, it is sunnat for a person hearing the adhân to repeat it silently. Upon hearing the parts of “Hayya ‘ala...", one does not repeat them, but says, “Lâ hawla wa lâ quwwata illâ billah.”
    It is declared in hadîth-i sharîfs:
    (If a person repeats what the muadhdhin is saying, he gets as much thawâb as that the muadhdhin gets.) [Nasâî]

    (My shafâ’at [intercession] becomes wâjib for a person repeating the adhân.) [Nasâî]

    ([You, too] Repeat the adhân and say the salawat! A person who says one salawat earns ten thawâbs.) [Muslim]

    The adhân is not repeated while eating, studying a lesson on dîn [religion], or while reading the Qur’ân al-karîm inside the mosque.

    Question: Is it necessary to rub the nails of both thumbs on the eyes while saying “Muhammadun Rasûlullah”?
    ANSWER
    When the adhân is being called, it is recommendable for people hearing the name of Rasûlullah to put the nails of both thumbs on their eyes and to say, “You are the light of my two eyes, oh Rasûl-Allah.”
    It is stated in a hadîth-i sharîf:
    (Rahmat (Allah's Mercy) descends where the pious persons are mentioned.) [Jâmi’us saghîr]

    Muhammad “alaihissalâm” is the highest of all the pious and prophets. When his name is mentioned, Allahu ta’âlâ shows Mercy and Grace. Prayers said when Allahu ta’âlâ shows Mercy will be accepted. When the adhân is being called, it is a nice supplication to say: “My eyes gain light and my heart is joyful with you, oh Rasûl-Allah.”

    Hadrat Abu Bakr as-Siddîq kissed the nails of his two thumbs and then touched his eyes with them when he heard Rasûlullah's name in the adhân, and when our Master, the Prophet asked why he did so, he said, “To attain blessings through your blessed name.” Rasûlullah then declared, “You did well. He who does so never suffers from eye-disease.” When the nails are touched on the eyes, one should say, “Allahum-mahfuz 'aynayya wa nawwirhumâ.” (Shaikh-zâda)

    This is not done while saying the iqâmat. The nails are not kissed and rubbed on the eyes.

    Question: Is it necessary to stop working while the adhân is called?
    ANSWER
    It is better to stop working when the adhân is called because it is stated in a hadîth-i sharîf, “To continue working on a task while the adhân is being called is a religious defect.” [‘Ilm-i hâl Ayyuhal Walad]

    Hadrat Abû Hafs al-Haddad, a blacksmith, did not put down his hammer if he lifted up and vice versa whenever he heard the adhân. If he was talking, he would stop it and listen to the adhân. When he died, the adhân was being called as people were carrying his coffin. However hard the carriers tried, they could not move his coffin one step ahead. Only after the adhân were they able to carry the coffin away.

    Question: When calling the adhân, is it necessary to turn one’s body to the right and to the left?
    ANSWER
    While saying "Hayya’alassalâh" and "Hayya’alalfalâh," turning only one’s face to the right and to the left respectively is sunnat. The body is not turned. While calling the adhân on a minaret by turning, it is called towards the qibla, too. (Hindiyya)

    Question: Is it an inconvenience to say the iqâmat by prolonging like the adhân?
    ANSWER
    The iqâmat is not prolonged like the adhân.
    It is declared in a hadîth-i sharîf:
    (Call the adhân by prolonging, say the iqâmat quickly.) [Tirmudhî]

    Question: I served as a muadhdhîn between the years 1940 and 1950. I said “God is Great” instead of “Allahu akbar.” I always called the adhân and iqâmat in Turkish and performed my namâzes by reciting translated âyats. There is no hardship in our religion; Allah never holds people responsible for more than they can bear. Let the people worship in their own languages. We cannot Arabify any one by force. Pillars of Islam are to be clean and to have good moral values, not to have a common language. In whatever language you perform your acts of worship, it is not an inconvenience, is it?
    ANSWER
    No, it is not so. It is written in all fiqh books that if one says all the sûras and prayers in Arabic in the namâz but only says “God is Great” instead of “Allahu akbar” when saying the takbîr of iftitâh, the namâz still is not valid and acceptable. For example, this fact is clearly written in Radd-ul-mukhtâr. Morover, it is a condition that the prayers recited before giving the salâm be in Arabic, too. Even reciting prayers not existing in the Qur’ân al-karîm or hadîth-i sharîfs nullifies the namâz. It is declared unanimously by savants that a namâz performed in any language other than Arabic will not be accepted. (Hindiyya)

    It would not be appropriate for us to sing other countries' national anthems by translating them into our own language and for them to do the same, either. Just as it is necessary to obey the law of each country, it is also necessary for us to perform our namâzes as Allahu ta’âlâ has commanded. Ours is the religion of ease but not the religion to be changed for the sake of anybody’s convenience.

    For instance, let us say your name is “Ismat” which means being sinless and clean. If somebody called you “Clean,” which is the translation of Arabic word “Ismat,” what would you say? If it is so weird to call a name in its translated version, how can it be permissible to recite the sûras of namâz in Turkish?

    In religion, neither your personal thought nor ours is esteemed worthy. What is credited is what valuable books write. The language of worship is Arabic as it is Allahu ta’âlâ’s order. It has to be done in accordance with the Wish of the Owner of the religion. Harboring any other wish will be contrary to the religion. It is in no way permissible to consider the translation of the Qur’ân al-karîm as its original form and to recite it when performing the namâz. Allahu ta’âlâ communicates in the Qur’ân al-karîm, “My book is in Arabic. I sent the Qur’ân down in the Arabic language.” Then, the total of the words, letters, and meanings which Allahu ta’âlâ has sent down through an angel is the Qur’ân. If it is translated even into Arabic, it will not be Qur’ân, but will be the explanation of it. Also, if one of its letter is changed even without the meaning being defiled, it is not the Qur’ân anymore.

    It is harâm [prohibited] to translate Qur’ân al-karîm into any other language and to read it instead of the Qur’ân, and even to change the Qur’ân by writing in Arabic letters as it is read. When the Qur’ân al-karîm is transliterated so or translated into other languages, the i’jaz [Divine Conciseness] of Allah’s Word is defiled, and the Divine Poem changes. Due to mentioned reasons, the translation of the Qur’ân al-karîm cannot be recited in the namâz. (Fatâwâ-i Fiqhiyya)

    Outside the namâz, it is permissible for all nations to supplicate and necessary to give advice on morals or religion in their own languages.

    Question: When calling the adhân, should we say “Muhammadan” or “Muhammadar”?
    ANSWER
    Both are possible, but to recite in conformity with tajwîd [the branch of knowledge teaching how to read the Qur’ân correctly],
    it is necessary to say “Muhammadar.”

    Question: Is it permissible to call the adhân by several muadhdhins together?
    ANSWER
    The adhân called by several muadhdhins together is termed t adhân-i jawq. It is permissible, not sinful.

    Question: A person hearing the adhân being called repeats it. Is it permissible to repeat the iqâmat, too?
    ANSWER
    It is sunnat to repeat the adhân, but to repeat the iqâmat is mustahab [an act for which there is thawâb (blessing) and if omitted there is no sin]. It is not an inconvenience to do so.

    Question: Should the imâm or the muadhdhin say the after-adhân supplication aloud?
    ANSWER
    It is not said aloud.

    Question: Is it permissible to say the iqâmat by walking?
    ANSWER
    It is makrûh.

    Question: While the adhân is being called, does a dog’s howling augur well?
    ANSWER
    It is stated in a hadîth-i sharîf that the devils run away while the adhân is being called. Cocks crow when they see the angels. Animals can see the things that we cannot. A dog’s howling during the adhân is a good augury. They may see the devils running.

    Question: Is it permissible to enter the rest-room while the adhân is being called?
    ANSWER
    If there is necessity, one can enter.

    Question: In a house where travelers and settled people are mixed, if a settled one calls the adhân and iqâmat, is it necessary for travelers to say it again?
    ANSWER
    No.
    Question: While saying the adhân silently at home, should people turn their faces to the right and to the left?
    ANSWER
    Yes.

    Question: At home or in a mosque, is it necessary for a man to raise his fingers to his ears when saying the adhân loudly or as loudly as he himself can hear?
    ANSWER
    Yes.

    Question: Is it necessary for a person in a mosque to stand up when the adhân is called?
    ANSWER
    No, it is not necessary.

    Question: It is well-known that the adhâns are called earlier than their prescribed times. Is it permissible to rely on them to determine the time if we don't have a watch, for example, to assume that there are three minutes yet to pass for the early afternoon namâz when its adhân is called?
    ANSWER
    Yes.

    Question: When saying the adhân, does one put the hands on the ears in a flat manner?
    ANSWER
    They are put in a flat manner.

    Question: When saying the iqâmat, should a man let his hands hang down on both sides or fold them on his navel?
    ANSWER
    They are let down, not folded.

    Question: Now that it is makrûh to call the adhân inside a masjid [a small mosque], if a person calls the adhân silently on the stairs of the office’s masjid, will the sunnat be carried out?
    ANSWER
    Yes.

    Question: In the city of Siirt, the word "sayyidinâ" is being added to the adhân. Is it a bid'at [a heretical conduct]?
    ANSWER
    Yes.

    Question: Is the letter “r” in the adhân and iqâmat said by making jazm or wasl?
    ANSWER
    It is not said as “Allahu akbarullahu”, but said “Allahu akbar Allahu akbar.”

    [jazm: it means not to add a vowel to a final consonant; wasl: it is to combine a final consonant with the vowel sound of the following word.]

    Question: When saying the iqâmat, if a person talks, is it necessary to say it again?
    ANSWER
    Yes.

    Question: If one talks after calling the adhân, and likewise, if another one talks after calling the iqâmat, is it necessary for them to re-say the adhân and iqâmat?
    ANSWER
    No.

    Question: When a baby is born, is it necessary to say the adhân in its ear when naming it?
    ANSWER
    It is good to say the adhân because it is written in hadîth books that our Master, the Prophet said the adhân in Hadrat Hasan’s ear when he was born. (Tirmudhî)

    [The one who will call the adhân in baby's ear takes the baby in one’s arms by placing a soft pillow under it and calls the adhân and the iqâmat in the baby's right and left ears respectively. Then the name is said in its ear. It is also possible that one person holds the child in the arms and another person calls the adhân.]

    It is stated in a hadîth-i sharîf:
    (If the adhân and iqâmat are said in a newborn baby’s right and left ears respectively, it will have been protected against the disease called “ummu sibyan.”) [Bayhaqî]

    Question: Which supplication should be said after the adhân which has been called compatibly with the sunnat?
    ANSWER
    The following supplication should be said:
    Allahumma rabba hâdhihi-d-da’wati-t-tâmmati wa-s-salâti-l-qâimati âti Muhammadan-il-wasîlata wa-l-fadîlata wa-d-darajata-r-rafî‘ati wab‘athhu maqâman mahmûdan- illadhî wa‘adtahû innaka lâ tukhliful mî‘âd.

    Making niyyat [intention] for the namâz


    Question: What is niyyat for the namâz? How should we make it?
    ANSWER
    To make niyyat for the namâz means passing through the heart its name, time, qibla, to wish to follow the imâm (when performing namâz in jamâ’at), to mean to perform namâz. Knowledge only, that is, knowing what is to be done will not be niyyat. In Shâfi’î Madhhab it is necessary to remember the rukns [fards that are inside the namâz] of namâz.

    Niyyat [intention] is made while saying the takbîr of iftitâh [saying Allahu akbar when beginning namâz]. It is permissible to make niyyat before that, too. In fact, it is permissible if a person who has left his home in order to perform namâz in jamâ’at follows the imâm without niyyat. But on the way he must not do one of the things that would nullify namâz. Walking or making ablution does not give harm.

    The niyyat made after the takbîr of iftitâh is not valid and that namâz is not acceptable.

    Some rules concerning niyyat for namâz:
    1- When making niyyat for namâzes that are fard or wâjib, it is necessary to know which fard or wâjib they are. For example, it is necessary to know the name of the fard and to say, for instance, “To perform today’s early afternoon prayer” or “ the present time’s fard.”

    2- When performing the namâz of ’Iyd, witr, or nazr [a namâz you perform because you have made your vow to perform it], it is necessary to think of its being wâjib and its name.

    3- It is not necessary to make niyyat for the number of rak’ats.

    4- When performing a sunnat namâz, the niyyat “To perform namâz” will suffice.

    5- The niyyat for the namâz of janâza [funeral] is made as “To perform namâz for Allah’s sake and to pray for the deceased.”

    6- The imâm does not have to make niyyat to be the imâm for men. But (if he does not) he will not attain the thawâb of namâz in jamâ’at. If he makes niyyat to be the imâm, he will attain this thawâb, too. The imâm has to make the niyyat as “To become the imâm for women” (when he is to conduct the jamâ’at of women).

    7- The jamâ’at must also make the niyyat as “I follow the present imâm.” It is not necessary for the jamâ’at to know the imâm. As the imâm says the takbîr, they must make the niyyat to follow him and begin the namâz immediately. It is good as well to make niyyat to follow the imâm when he takes his place and to begin the namâz together.

    8- If a person makes his niyyat to follow the imâm and thinks that the imâm is, let us say, Zayd, whereas the imâm is not Zayd but someone else, his namâz will be accepted. But if he makes his niyyat to follow Zayd and if the imâm is someone else, his namâz which he performs by following him will not be accepted.

    9- If a person makes niyyat for the fard of early afternoon prayer when performing the first sunnat of early afternoon prayer, (s)he will have performed the fard of early afternoon prayer. The namâz that (s)he performs after that becomes nâfila [supererogatory].

    10- As you perform a namâz which you have started considering that it is the present time’s namâz and with the intention to perform the fard of the present time’s namâz, if the time becomes over without you knowing (that it is over), the namâz will not be sahîh [valid]. If you intended to perform “today’s fard,” it would be sahîh and you would have made qadâ. Namâz performed before its time comes is supererogatory. If it is performed after its time has been over, it becomes qadâ. That is, those who make their niyyat as “To perform today’s early afternoon prayer” will have made qadâ of the early afternoon prayer if its time has been over. Likewise, if they think that the time is over and make their niyyat as “To make qadâ of today’s early afternoon prayer,” they will have made adâ of the early afternoon prayer when they find out (later) that its time was not over. In both cases they have made their niyyat for the same prayer but have been wrong in the time’s being over. But the prayer which they perform with the intention of making qadâ of their last early afternoon prayer does not stand for the present day’s early afternoon prayer. For they have not made their niyyat “for today’s prayer.” By the same token, (today’s) early afternoon prayer performed with the intention of adâ does not stand for any past early afternoon prayer that was omitted.

    Question: When performing namâz, should we make niyyat verbally or through the heart?
    ANSWER
    Niyyat is not something to be confined to certain words uttered in the name of intention. All four madhhabs are unanimous in that acts of worship performed without the niyyat made by heart are not valid. No one heard Rasûlullah (‘alaihissalâm), the Sahaba, the Tâbi’în, or even the four imâms, make niyyat verbally.

    Hadrat Imâm-i Rabbânî “quddisa sirruh” declares in the hundred and eighty-six letter of the first volume of Maktûbât:

    “Niyyat is made by heart. It is bid’at to make niyyat verbally. This bid’at has been called hasana (good, useful). But this bid’at annihilates not only the sunnat but also the fard. For, many people have been making niyyat only by tongue, without passing the niyyat through their heart. Thus niyyat through heart, one of the fards [conditions] of namâz, has been neglected, and namâz has been nullified. This faqîr (Hadrat Imâm-i Rabbânî means himself) do not recognize any bid’at as Hasana. I see no beauty in any bid’at.”

    It is stated in Ibni ‘Âbidîn:
    “That it is fard to make niyyat when beginning namâz has been stated unanimously. Niyyat is made only with the heart. It is bid’at to make it only in words. It is permissible for people who make niyyat with their heart to make niyyat verbally also in order to be safe against doubts.”
     
  2. _Mr.PaNiK_

    _Mr.PaNiK_ Üye

    The fards that are inside the namâz (rukns)


    1- Tahrîma (takbîr of iftitâh):
    It means to say Allahu akbar when beginning namâz, and it is fard. No other word to replace it is acceptable. This takbîr of iftitâh is one of the conditions of namâz. It is not a rukn. If the takbîr is said too long, like “AAAllahu” in the beginning or “akbaar” at the end, namâz will not be accepted. If you utter the word “akbar” before the imâm does (when performing namâz in jamâ’at), your namâz will not have started.

    2- Qiyâm:
    Qiyâm is the first of the five rukns of namâz. It means standing. When standing, the two feet must be four times a finger’s width apart from each other. Those who are too ill to stand, or who will feel dizzy or have a headache or toothache or pain at some other part of their body or cannot control their urination or wind breaking or bleeding when they stand, or who fear that their enemy may see (and harm) them or their possessions may be stolen when they stand, or whose fast will break or speech will be slurred or awrat parts will open when they stand, perform namâz sitting. Also, if you are ill and infer from your own experiences or are told by a specialized Muslim doctor that standing will make your illness worse or delay your healing, you perform namâz sitting. But the doctor who tells you should not be a fâsiq person committing sins or harâms frankly. Such people may sit on the floor in a manner that comes easy to them; cross legged, or knees drawn up with arms folded round the legs or in any other manner. People incapable of sitting in that manner on their own does so with someone else’s help. For the ruku’ they bend forward a little. For the sajda they put their head on the ground.

    3- Qirâat:
    Qirâat is to read (recite) orally. Reading (or reciting) only as loud as one can hear is called khafî. It is called jahrî, that is, loud if it is audible by one’s company. It is fard to say an âyat [a verse of the Qur’ân al-karîm] of the Qur’ân while standing at every rak’at of sunnats and of the witr and at two rak’ats of the fard when performing namâz individually. It brings more thawâb to say a short sûra [a chapter of the Qur’ân al-karîm]. As qirâat, it is wâjib to say the sûra of Fâtiha at these parts of namâzes and to say also a sûra or three âyats at every rak’ât of sunnats and of witr prayer and at two rak’ats of the fard. In the fard [namâzes that are obligatory], it is wâjib or sunnat to say the Fâtiha and the (other) sûra at the first two rak’ats. Additionally, it is wâjib to say the Fâtiha before the sûra. Furthermore, it is wâjib to say the Fâtiha once at every rak’at. If one of these five wâjibs is forgotten, it is necessary to make sajda-i sahw. According to some more dependable information, at the third and fourth rak’ats of the fard, it is sunnat for the imâm as well as for a person who performs namâz individually to say the Fâtiha. It will be all right whether one says the additional sûra, too, or says nothing. When making the qirâat, it is not permissible to recite translations of the Qur’ân. In the other three Madhhabs, it is fard to say the Fâtiha in every namâz and in every rak’at.

    4- Ruku’:
    Ruku’ is to bend forward at the waist, and it is fard. After the sûra, you bend for the ruku’ saying the takbîr [Allahu akbar]. In the ruku’ men open their fingers and put them on their knees. They keep their back and head level. In the ruku’ you say “Subhâna rabbiyal-azîm” at least thrice. If the imâm raises his head before you have said it three times, you must raise your head, too. In the ruku’ your arms and legs must be straight. Women do not open their fingers. They do not keep their head and back level, or their arms and legs straight. It is sunnat for the imâm as well as for people who are performing namâz by themselves to say “Sami’ allahu liman hamidah” while straightening up from the ruku’. The jamâ’at does not say it. Right after saying it, people who is performing namâz by themselves, and the jamâ’at, upon hearing the imâm recite it, must say “Rab’banâ lakal hamd,” and stand upright.

    5- Sajda:
    Sajda is to prostrate. While kneeling down for the sajda saying “Allahu akbar,” put first the right knee and then the left knee, followed by the right and left hands, on the flor (or on the ground if it is performed outdoors). Finally, the nose and the forehead bones are put on the ground. Women also should keep their forehead uncovered during namâz. In the sajda, fingers must be closed, pointing towards the qibla in line with the ears, and the head must be between hands. It is fard that the forehead be touching on something clean, such as a stone, some earth, wood, cloth, and it is said (by savants) that it is wâjib to put the nose down, too. It is not permissible to put only the nose on the ground without an ‘udhr [good excuse]. It is makrûh to put only the forehead on the ground. In the sajda you must say “Subhâna rabbiyal-a’lâ” at least thrice. It is either fard or wâjib to put two feet or at least one toe of each foot on the ground. There are also some savants who say that it is sunnat. That is, if two feet are not put on the ground, namâz will either not be valid or it will become makrûh. If, during the sajda, the forehead, nose, or feet are raised from the ground for a short while, it will cause no harm.

    In the sajda, it is sunnat to bend the toes and turn them towards the qibla. Men must keep their arms and thighs away from their abdomen. It is sunnat to place the hands and the knees on the ground. It is sunnat to keep the heels a four-finger-width away from each other in the qiyâm, but in the ruku’, qawma [standing upright after the ruku’] and sajda, they must be kept together. For doing this, when bending for the rukû, the heel of the left foot is brought near the right foot (but this applies to men; women do not join their feet together). They are separated again when standing up for the qiyâm after the sajda.

    Sajda is done for Allahu ta’alâ only. It is performed towards the direction of Ka’ba, but not for the Ka’ba. One who makes sajda for the Ka’ba becomes a disbeliever.

    6- Qada-i-âkhira:
    It is to sit as long as it takes you to say the prayer “Attahiyyâtu” in the last rak’at. When sitting, men put their left foot flat on the ground with its toes pointing towards the right. They sit on this foot. The right foot should be upright, with the toes touching the ground and pointing towards the qibla. It is sunnat to sit in this manner. Women sit by “tawarruk.” That is, they sit with their buttocks on the ground. Their thighs should be close to each other. Their feet should jut out from their right.

    It is written in Durr-ul-mukhtâr:
    “You do not make a sign with your fingers while sitting. The fatwâ says so.”



    How do we perform namâz?


    Question: I have recently begun to perform the namâz. Could you explain how to perform namâzes by exemplifying?
    ANSWER
    The sunnat of the morning prayer is performed as follows:

    1- You turn towards the direction of the Qibla. The heels are kept a four-finger-width away from each other. Tips of thumbs touch earlobes, and palms are turned towards the Qibla. After saying “I intend to perform the sunnat of today’s morning prayer for the sake of Allah,” the right hand is put on the left hand under the navel saying Allahu akbar. It is also necessary for you to know that you have turned towards the Qibla at that time.

    2- Keeping the eyes fixed on the place of the sajda [prostration], you recite the Subhânaka. After saying the A’ûdhu and the Basmala, you recite the Fâtiha and, without saying the Basmala, an additional sûra [a chapter of the Qur’ân al-karîm].

    3- After reciting the additional sûra, you bend for the ruku’ [bowing by putting hands on the knees] saying Allahu akbar. In the ruku’, you open your fingers and put them on your knees (in a grasping manner). You keep your back and head level. You look at the feet and say Subhâna rabbiyal-‘azîm three times.

    4- You straighten up from the ruku’ saying Sami’ Allahu liman hamidah. While straightening up, you must not pull up your trousers and must not withdraw your eyes from the place of the sajda. When you stand upright, you say Rabbanâ lakal hamd.

    5- You stand for a while and kneel down for the sajda saying Allahu akbar. You say Subhâna rabbiyal-a’lâ three times in the sajda.

    6- Afterwards, by saying Allahu akbar, you put your left foot flat on the ground with its toes pointing towards the right. The right foot should be upright with its toes touching the ground and pointing towards the Qibla. You sit on your thighs, place your palms on your knees and let your fingers free.

    7- Saying Allahu akbar, you prostrate for the sajda again.

    8- After saying Subhâna rabbiyal-a’lâ three times in the sajda, you stand up saying Allahu akbar.

    9- While standing, you say the Basmala, the Fâtiha and an additional sûra. Then you bend down for the ruku’ saying Allahu akbar.

    10- The second rak’at [units of namâz each of which comprises the actions of standing, bowing, and two times prostration] is completed in the same way as detailed for the first rak’at. However, after the second sajda, when you say Allahu akbar, you do not stand up but sit on your thighs. After reciting the prayers Attahiyyâtu, Allahumma salli, Allahumma bârik and Rabbanâ âtinâ, you make the salâm first to the right and second to the left by saying Assalâmu ‘alaikum wa rahmat-ullah. Following this, you say the certain prayer “Allahumma anta-s-salâm wa minkas-salâm tabârakta yâ dhal jalâli wa-l-ikrâm.”

    Then you stand up and perform the fard [obligatory prayer] of the morning prayer without saying anything in between. The fard of the morning prayer is performed in the same way as explained for the sunnat of it.

    After completing the namâz, you say the following prayer that reads “Astaghfirullah-al‘azîm alladhî lâ ilâha illâ huw-al-hayy-al-qayyûma wa atûbu ilayh” three times, then you recite the Âyat al-kursî and say Subhânallah, Alhamdulillah, Allahu akbar, 33 times each, and the prayer “Lâ ilâha il-l-Allahu wahdahû lâ sharîka lah laul-mulku wa lah-ul-hamdu wa huwa ’alâ kulli shay’in qadîr” once. Afterwards, you make du’â [supplication].

    After you perform the first two rak’ats as we have explained above, when you sit following the second rak’at of the sunnat namâzes that contain four rak’ats, you say only the “Attahiyyâtu” and stand up for the third rak’at. During the third and fourth rak’ats of the sunnat namâzes, you say the Fâtiha and an additional sûra. Then you make the ruku’ and sajda, and you sit. After reciting the prayers Attahiyyâtu, Allahumma salli, Allahumma bârik and Rabbanâ âtinâ, you complete the namâz by making the salâm first to the right and second to the left.

    When you sit after the second rak’at of the four-rak’at fard namâzes, you only say the Attahiyyâtu and stand up for the third rak’at (you perform the first two rak’ats as we have explained above). However, you say only the Fâtiha during the third and fourth rak’ats, and you sit after making the rukus and sajdas. During the last sitting posture, you say the prayers Attahiyyâtu, Allahumma salli, Allahumma bârik, and Rabbanâ âtinâ and complete the namâz by saying the salâm first to the right and second to the left.

    The fard of the evening prayer is as such. That is, the additional sûra is not said during the third rak’at.

    In all three rak’ats of the namâz of witr, you say an additional sûra after saying the Fâtiha. After the additional sûra in the third rak’at, you raise your both hands up to your ears by saying the takbîr [Allahu akbar], and (after folding your hands) you say the prayers termed Qunût.

    The initial sunnats of the late afternoon and night namâzes are like other four-rak’at sunnat namâzes. But when you sit after their second rak’ats, after reciting the Attahiyyâtu, the prayers Allahumma salli and Allahumma bârik are recited completely.

    As for the namâzes of women, they do not raise their hands up to their ears as men do. They raise their both hands up to the level of their shoulders and make niyyat [intention]. Then they fold their hands on their breasts. While making ruku’, they do not keep their backs level. They lay their forearms on the floor in the sajda, and they sit on their buttocks during sitting postures.

    Question: What does “making niyyat for namâz” mean?
    ANSWER
    Making niyyat [intention] for namâz means to pass through the heart its name, time, qibla, to wish to follow the imâm (when performing namâz in jamâ’at), or to become the imâm.

    Question: When saying the first takbîr in namâz, are the hands raised up to the ears?
    ANSWER
    When beginning namâz, men raise both hands. Tips of thumbs touch earlobes. Palms are turned towards the Qibla. Saying Allahu akbar is begun as hands leave ears and finished as they are folded under navel. Though the namâz is not nullified if the hands are folded after saying Allahu akbar, it is better to do as we have explained.

    Question: Will we have started a namâz when we say the takbîr or when we fold our hands?
    ANSWER
    The hands are of no importance; we will have started a namâz when we say the takbîr.

    Question: Is it permissible to perform a namâz without a prayer rug?
    ANSWER
    Namâz can be performed at any clean place; a prayer rug is not a requirement. Namâz can be performed on the soil, on a rush mat, on a rug, or on any clean thing. In the event that one fails to find a place to perform namâz, it can even be performed in rooms which are entered without taking off the shoes but where there is no sign of najâsat.

    Question: When does a rak’at commence and finish?
    ANSWER
    The first rak’at commences with the beginning of the namâz and the other rak’ats begin right after standing up, and each rak’at continues until one stands up again. The final rak’at continues until the salâm [saying “Assalâm-u ‘alaikum wa rahmat-ullah” at the end of a namâz] is said. No namâzes can be less than two rak’ats.

    Question: What does the term zamm-i sûra [additional sûra] mean? What should the length of it be?
    ANSWER
    The additional sûra is a long or short sûra or three âyats [Qur’ânic verses] or one âyat that is equal to three âyats said after the recitation of the Fâtiha. When we consider the length of three âyats in terms of words, it must have ten words but when we consider it in terms of letters, it must have thirty [30] letters. (Radd-ul-Mukhtâr)
    The Sûrat-un-Nâs has six âyats. Should the occasion arise, its three âyats can be recited in the first rak’at and the following three âyats can be recited in the second rak’at.

    Question: When performing five daily namâzes, how many âyats should be recited in order for them to be in accordance with the sunnat?
    ANSWER
    It is sunnat to recite a total of 40, maximum fifty âyats at two rak’ats of the morning prayer.

    What is sunnat in the early afternoon prayer is to recite less than those which were recited in the morning prayer.

    The sunnat in the late afternoon and night prayers is to recite 20 âyats.

    The sunnat in the evening prayer is to say a short sûra at each rak’at. Short sûras are the ones coming after the Sûrat-ul-Bayyina.

    When conducting fard namâzes, it is makrûh tahrîmî for the imâm to say more âyats than above-mentioned ones. Even if the jamâ’at want him to do so, it is still makrûh. But if the jamâ’at want him to say less than those prescribed by the sunnat, it is permissible for the imâm to say less, but not permissible to say more. For instance, if travelers or people who have difficulty in keeping their ablutions say to the imâm who is to lead the prayer, “Conduct the prayer with the shortest sûra,” and if the imâm conducts so by reciting the sûras of Kawthar and Ikhlâs, it will be permissible, not makrûh. (Hindiyya)

    Question: Is it permissible to perform namâz against an electric heater or gas flames?
    ANSWER
    It is permissible to perform namâz against any kind of stove, flames or light sources. However, it is not permissible to perform it against a fire.

    Question: Does a person whose namâz has been nullified leave the namâz by making the salâm?
    ANSWER
    When a namâz is nullified, there is no need to make the salâm. Should the necessity arises to break the namâz while one is performing, then one breaks it by making the salâm. For example, if other people begin to perform the fard in jamâ’at in the presence of a person who is performing the same fard alone, he makes the salâm immediately and follows the jama’ât.

    Question: When performing namâz, if my mobile phone rings melodiously, does it bring harm upon my namâz?
    ANSWER
    When a mobile rings, it does not nullify the namâz. But according to the statement in Ibni Âbidîn: “it is makrûh to perform namâz against things that distract your heart and prevent your khushû’ [deep and humble reverence], e.g. musical instruments.” Makrûhs lessen the blessings of the namâz. In some mosques, when loudspeakers are on, music may blare out. You must clear away things that prevent the performance of namâz in deep reverence.

    Question: When performing namâz, which stance should we take?
    ANSWER
    You should enter His Presence with proper manners. As you begin namâz, it would be better to think as if the Bridge of Sirât were in front of you, to engrave in your heart that Hadrat Azrâîl [the angel of death] is ready to take away your soul at any moment, and also to bear in mind that maybe this is the last namâz of our lifetime.

    Question: When we are making sajda, if our headgears come down to our foreheads, will it be makruh?
    ANSWER
    Yes. While touching the ground, the forehead must be bare.

    Question: As I began namâz, I saw a picture on the table in front of me. Was it appropriate for me to break the namâz in order for the namâz not to become makrûh?
    ANSWER
    It is not permissible to break the namâz. Instead, one should take precautions against such things before beginning namâz.

    Question: When performing namâz, if the lights go off or someone turns them off unknowingly, will our namâz be valid?
    ANSWER
    The namâz will be valid; it does not become makrûh. Yet it is makrûh to begin a namâz in pitch-dark without an excuse.

    Question: Does it nullify a namâz to look at a person by turning our head or to motion to a particular thing with our hand by outstretching our arm in response to a person who has asked the place of it?
    ANSWER
    Few actions that do not nullify a namâz are termed amal-i qalîl, but actions that are so many as to nullify a namaz are termed amal-i kasîr.
    When performing namâz, turning your head (face) around is amal-i qalîl and is thus makrûh. In the same way, to make a motion with your hand or arm in response to a person asking the place of a particular object is makrûh as it is amal-i qalîl. If you turn your chest away from the Qibla [the direction a Muslim turns when performing namâz, the direction pointing to Kâ’ba], your namâz becomes nullified as it is amal-i kasîr. (Marâqil-falâh)

    Question: If I say to a friend while he is performing namâz such things: “Put your fallen headgear back with a single hand, it is not an inconvenience,” or “Make a little room to allow me to pass,” if he does what I have wanted him to do, is his namâz nullified?
    ANSWER
    To put a headgear back or to make room for a newcomer with someone else’s warning nullifies namâz. But your moving of your own will a little some time later does not nullify it.

    Question: When performing namâz, the children make a lot of noise. Is it makrûh for me to raise my voice a bit while saying the takbîrs [saying Allahu akbar] to reduce them to silence?
    ANSWER
    It is not makrûh. However, you should not interfere in their noise as long as it is not so loud as to cause you to get confused during namâz.

    Question: If one informs a person performing namâz saying, “You will go to there (for example) after completing the namâz,” will the informant have committed a sin?
    ANSWER
    The informant will not have committed a sin.

    Question: While I was performing a fard namâz, a friend of mine asked me, “Are you performing the fard?” I nodded gently in aggreement. Was my namâz nullified?
    ANSWER
    It was not nullified.

    Question: Is it makrûh for a man to perform namâz against the back of a sitting woman who is his wife or any of his mahram [one of the eighteen women whom Islam has prescribed as a man’s close relatives] relatives?
    ANSWER
    It is not makrûh.

    Question: Is it permissible to perform namâz when there is a wallet made of the leather of a snake or a pig in our pocket?
    ANSWER
    The skin of a pig or a snake will never become clean even if it is tanned. Namâz cannot be performed with wallets made of such leather.

    Question: When saying the salâm in namâz, should we also intend for angels and our Master, the Prophet (‘alaihissalâm)?
    ANSWER
    One who performs namâz individually should intend for the Angels of Haphaza when saying the salâm. It is also recommended for one to intend for our Prophet. However, he who performs namâz in jamâ’at should additionally intend for the imâm and for people on the right-hand side and left-hand side of him.

    Question: In the sitting posture, does it produce thawâb to recite the prayer “Allahumma innî a’ûdhu bika min hamazâtish-shayâtîn” after reciting the “Rabbanâ âtinâ”?
    ANSWER
    Yes, it produces much thawâb.

    Question: If one starts a namâz after searching for the Qibla, and after one has performed one rak’at, if pious a Muslim comes and turns that one to the direction of qibla with his hands by saying, ” You are in the wrong direction,” in this case, will the namâz be valid?
    ANSWER
    Yes, it will be valid.

    Question: When standing in namâz, how much distance should one keep between one’s two feet?
    ANSWER
    When standing, the Hanafîs keep the heels a four-finger-width away from each other, but the Shâfi’îs keep them apart from each other a hand span wide.

    Question: When performing the morning prayer, is it an inconvenince to recite the sûras from “Alam tara” to “Tabbat” in succession in the first rak’at and to recite the sûras coming after the “Tabbat” in the second rak’at?
    ANSWER
    Though it is permissible to say several successive sûras in one rak’at, it is best to say one sûra.

    Question: When making qadâ [make up] of the fards of the late afternoon and night prayers, do we have to recite the prayers “Allahumma salli” and “Allahumma bârik” in the first sitting just as we recite them in the sunnats of those namâzes? Secondly, when making qadâ of the fard of the evening prayer, is it necessary to perform it as two rak’ats like its sunnat?
    ANSWER
    The qadâ of a fard prayer is made in exactly the same way as the adâ [performing namâz in its appointed time] of it is made. The qadâ of a fard prayer is not different from its adâ. Therefore, the qadâ of the evening prayer is performed as three rak’ats, not as two rak’ats. (Radd-ul mukhtâr)

    Question: While I am performing namâz in my store, shoppers may come in at that time. Is it proper for me to break the namâz and deal with them? Or must I complete my namâz?
    ANSWER
    It is harâm [prohibited] to break a namâz if there is not a darûrat [strong necessity], so you have to complete your namâz. When shoppers see you performing namâz, they either wait or leave. You must not commit a sin to please a shopper.

    Question: When performing namâz, is it permissible to make du’â [supplication] in the sajda [prostration]?
    ANSWER
    In namâz, it is not permissible to make du’â in the sajda. Yet it is permissible to make du’â in the sajda posture of certain supererogatory prayers. Besides, outside namâzes, it is also good to prostrate for the sajda and make du’â. It is stated in hadîth-i sharîfs:
    (A born servant is nearest to his Lord when he is prostrating to Him, so make many du’âs in the sajda.) [Muslim]

    (Strive for making du’â in the ruku’ and sajda. This du’â is worthy of being answered.) [Muslim]

    (He who says “Rabbighfirlî” thrice in the sajda is forgiven before he straightens up from the sajda.) [Daylamî]

    Question: When I hear the adhân of morning prayer called, I perform the namâz and then go to bed. But after I have gone to bed, I hear adhâns being called from other mosques. Is it necessary for me to re-perform the morning prayer?
    ANSWER
    The condition for the namâz to be performed is not the adhân’s being called but the time’s having started. If its due time has started, even if the adhân is not called, we say the adhân and perform the namâz. If we perform the namâz without saying the adhân, it will be valid. But we will be deprived of the thawâb of sunnat given for saying the adhân.

    Question: Does it nullify the namâz to scratch any place on our skin by raising one hand three times within one rukn [recitation of an âyat, the ruku’, the two sajdas and sitting in the last rak’at are each a rukn]?
    ANSWER
    Three separate scratching occasions within one rukn nullify the namâz. Yet, if the hand moves 3-4 times on the same place within one scratching occasion, it does not nullify the namâz. (Radd-ul mukhtâr)

    Question: If the phone rings, is it permissible to break a namâz?
    ANSWER
    It is not permissible; it is harâm.

    Question: Is it permissible to give a quiet cough to make it known that one is performing namâz?
    ANSWER
    No.

    Question: After reciting the Fâtiha, if one hangs the hands down along one’s sides by mistake, is it necessary for one to fold the hands when saying the additional sûra?
    ANSWER
    One must recite without folding the hands, and thereby abstain from extra movements. Anyway, if they are folded, the namâz will not be nullified.

    Question: If one recites an additional sûra in the third and fourth rak’ats of a fard prayer, is the namâz nullified? Is it necessary to make qadâ of those namâzes which were performed so?
    ANSWER
    It is not an inconvenience at all to recite an additional sûra in the third and fourth rak’ats of a fard prayer. Therefore, it is not necessary to make qadâ of those namâzes that were performed so. (Radd-ul mukhtâr)

    Question: When we have completed a namâz by making the salâm, is it permissible for us to stand up right away? Is it an inconvenience to recite the prayer “Allahumma anta-s-salâm …” not while one is sitting but while one is standing up?
    ANSWER
    After making the salâm, Our Master, the Prophet (‘alaihissalâm) would say “Allahumma antas-salâm wa minkas-salâm tabârakta yâ dhal’ jalâli wal’ikrâm” and sit no longer than it took him to say that prayer. (Tirmudhî)

    Question: Is it necessary for a person who cannot wake up for the morning prayer to buy an alarm clock?
    ANSWER
    It is necessary to take an effectual precaution to wake up for the namâz. The easiest of these precautions is to buy an alarm clock.

    Question: When making qadâ of the fards of the evening, night and morning prayers in the daytime, does a person perform the recitation loudly?
    ANSWER
    It is permissible to recite loudly.

    Question: If one says the Basmala before the “Attahiyyâtu,” is it necessary to make the sajda-i sahw?
    ANSWER
    It is not necessary.

    Question: I have the debt of fourty years’ qadâ namâzes. In order to finish them as soon as possible, if I do not recite the prayer “Rabbanâ âtinâ …” in the last sitting to save time, and instead, if I reserve that saved time for qadâ namâzes, will it be appropriate?
    ANSWER
    It is permissible because it is compulsory to pay the debt of qadâ namâzes at once. (Nawâdir-ul-fiqhiyya)

    Question: Is the namâz of a person who has performed one more rak’at after reciting the Attahiyyâtu in the last sitting valid when making up for the mistake with sajda-i sahw?
    ANSWER
    Since one has sat in the last rak’at, the namâz is valid with the sajda-i sahw. Yet, if one had performed one more rak’at after that extra rak’at and had made the salâm, the last two rak’ats would have become supererogatory.

    Question: While reciting in namâz, while saying sûras and other prayers in bed, or when making du’â and saying the Kalima-i tawhîd, is it appropriate to recite them through our heart by not opening our mouths?
    ANSWER
    Qirâat means reading by mouth. Reading as loud as to be heard only by the reader is termed “reading gently.” But reading as loud as to be heard by people who stand on each side of the reader is termed “reading loudly.” It is not makrûh if a person reciting gently is heard by one or two people. Reciting loudly means being heard by many people. (Bazzâziyya)

    A namâz performed without reciting as loudly as to be heard by the reciter will not be valid. Likewise, when making du’â, you must recite or say on a level to be heard by yourself.

    In order for Kalima-i tahlîl [Lâ ilâha ill-Allah] to bring the thawâb of an act of worship, you should say it with your toungue as loudly as to be heard by yourself. Those who perform khatm-i tahlîl [saying Lâ ilâha ill-Allah seventy thousand times] should say on a level at least to be heard by themselves. However, if the Kalima-i tahlîl is not said as an act of worship but to purify the heart, then you do not move your tongue. (Radd-ul-mukhtâr)

    Question: After having performed the early afternoon prayer, I remembered that I had not had an ablution. Is it necessary for me to perform it again?
    ANSWER
    Yes, it is necessary to perform it again. A namâz performed without an ablution though one thinks one has had an ablution will not be valid. Yet one will be given much thawâb in return for one’s niyyat. If one finds some najs water and yet thinks it is clean and makes an ablution with it and performs namâz, one’s namâz will not be valid because one of its conditions has not been fulfilled; however, one will be given thawâb owing to one’s intention. On the other hand, a namâz that is valid because it has been performed with all its conditions fulfilled will not be given any thawâb if it has been performed for ostentation. (Ashbâh)

    Question: What does the term “imsâk” that is written on calendars mean? Can we perform the morning prayer at that time?
    ANSWER
    Imsâk is the time at which the night ends and prohibition against eating and drinking starts. One must stop eating and drinking at the time of imsâk that is written on the calendar prepared and published by the daily Turkiye. 15 minutes after this imsâk time, one can perform the morning prayer. If people follow incorrect calendars and thereby continue eating and drinking until the adhân is called, then their putting the whole blame on the calendar does not absolve them from the responsibility.

    Question: Is it permissible to begin as “Allahumma rabbanâ âtinâ …” instead of “Rabbanâ …”?
    ANSWER
    Yes, it is permissible, but it is better to begin as “Rabbanâ.”

    Question: After reciting the prayers “Allahumma salli …” and “Allahumma barik …”, is it permissible to recite any other prayer?
    ANSWER
    It is permissible to recite the ones reported in hadîth-i sharîfs. It is permissible to recite such âyat-i karîmas that contain du’â as “Rabbanâ âtinâ …” and “Rabbanaghfir lî …” with an intention to make du’â.


    The namâzes of women

    Question: What are the differences between the namâzes of men and those of women?
    ANSWER
    They are:

    1- When beginning to perform namâz, a woman raises both hands up to the level of her shoulders. She does not grasp her left wrist with the fingers of her right hand. She puts her hands on her breast, right hand on top of the left.

    2- While making ruku’, she bends less as compared to men, and she does not bring the heel of her left foot near her right foot. She does not keep her legs straight, nor her back level. She puts her hands on her knees, but she does not grasp them. Also, she does not keep her fingers wide apart.

    3- When making sajda, she lays her arms on the ground, bringing her arms to her sides while she keeps her abdomen placed over her thighs.

    4- In the tashahhud [sitting posture], she sits on the buttocks, her feet jutting out towards right. She keeps her toes adjacent to one another.

    5- She does not stretch her hands forward while making du’â, but she keeps them inclined towards her face.

    6- It is not mustahab for her to perform the morning prayer (namâz) when it becomes rather light (it is termed “isfâr”).

    7- In namâz, she does not recite loudly. On the ‘Iyd of Qurbân, after making the salâm in namâzes that are fard, she says the takbîr-i tashrîq (Allahu akbar Allahu akbar Lâ ilâha illallahu Wallahu akbar Allahu akbar wa lillahil-hamd) silently. (Radd-ul-mukhtâr, Tahtâwî)

    Question: While a woman is performing namâz, in the sitting postures, is it necessary for her to grasp her knees?
    ANSWER
    No, they are placed on the knees.

    Question: It is written in the books Halabî and Radd-ul-mukhtâr that it is sunnat to bring the heel of the left foot near the right foot when bending for the ruku’. Does this practice also apply to women?
    ANSWER
    No, women do not bring them together. It applies to men alone.


    Things that nullify namâz


    Question: What are the things that nullfiy namâz?
    ANSWER
    Things that nullify a namâz are called mufsids. A worship being fâsid or bâtil is the same; it means it is broken, nullified.
    Some of them are as follows:

    1- To talk. Even one word nullifies namâz. It always nullifies namâz regardless of whether it is said intentionally or inadvertently or under duress or by forgetting. However, it does not nullify namâz to say the salâm at the end of the first sitting posture, mistaking it for the second sitting. Yet if you say, “Assalâmu,” thinking that the namâz is of two rak’ats, or if you say it while standing, your namâz becomes nullified. To respond to someone else’s greeting, in any manner whatsoever, nullifies namâz.

    2- Without a good excuse, coughing through the throat nullifies namâz. If it happens involuntarily, it does not nullify namâz. If you do it in order to facilitate your recitation, it is harmless.

    3- To say prayers in namâz that do not exist in âyats or hadîths nullifies namâz. It is written in Durr-ul-mukhtâr: “The prayer to be said before making the salâm has to be in Arabic. It is harâm to pray in any other language during namâz.” At this point Ibni ‘Âbidîn explains: “Imâm-i Abû Yûsuf and Imâm-i Muhammad said that namâz performed in any language other than Arabic would not be accepted. Imâm-i A’zam’s later ijtihâd tallies with it.”

    4- To moan or to say “Ouch!” etc. nullifies namâz.

    5- To say, “Ugh!” in order to express annoyance nullifies namâz.

    6- Crying for reasons such as a pain or sorrow nullifies namâz. If you weep silently, or cry loudly because of the thought of Paradise and Hell, your namâz does not become nullified. If a sick person cannot help saying “Ouch, ugh!” or crying, the namâz does not become nullified.

    7- It nullifies namâz to say “Yarhamukallah” to a person who sneezes and says “Al-hamdulillah.” When not performing namâz, it is fard-i kifâya to say the former immediately after each of the three instances of the latter, and it is mustahab after the third time [Riyâd un-nâsihîn].

    8- To say, “Innâ lillâh wa ... ,” upon hearing bad news nullifies namâz. It is sunnat to say it while not performing namâz.

    9- To say “Jalla Jalâluh” and “Sallallâhu alaihi wa sallam,” upon hearing the names of Allahu ta’âlâ and the Prophet “sallallâhu alaihi wa sallam” nullifies namâz. Outside of namâz, saying or writing them is wâjib for the first time and mustahab for those times afterwards of saying, hearing, or writing their names.

    10- To say “Âmîn” for a prayer said by anyone but the imâm nullifies namâz. When the imâm finishes reciting the Fâtiha, it is makrûh for the imâm and for the jamâ’at to say “Âmîn” loudly. They must say it in a whisper.

    11- To change your place or to make room for a newcomer with someone else’s warning nullifies namâz. But your moving of your own will a little some time later does not nullify it.

    12- To correct an error made by anyone except the imâm you follow nullifies the namâz (of the person who makes the correction).

    13- Even if a little, or by forgetting, eating or drinking by placing (after starting to perform namâz) something in the mouth nullifies namâz. It does not nullify namâz to swallow something smaller than a chick-pea that has remained between the teeth. It does not break a fast, either. To chew something small in your mouth three times or to swallow it after melting it nullifies namâz.

    14- To say the prayers by reading and learning them from the Qur’ân al-kerîm or from some other paper nullifies namâz. To do so would mean to learn the prayers from someone else. Imâm-i Muhammad and Imâm-i Abû Yûsuf said that it would be makrûh. They added that it would not even be makrûh if it is not intended to imitate a disbeliever with a Heavanly Book. Looking at a piece of writing [or something or its picture on the wall] without understanding it does not nullify namâz. You would have committed an act of makrûh if you understood it (when you looked at it). It would not be makrûh if it only met your eyes by chance.

    [Doing the customs of disbelievers, if not with the intention of being like them, if they are not harâm or evil customs, and if they are useful, is permissible. Eating and drinking like them is an example of this. It is harâm if it is done in order to become like them, or if they are harâm and bad customs.]

    15- Extra movements that are not parts of namâz nullify namâz. Making the ruku’ or the sajdas more than the prescribed number or going out to make ablution does not nullify it. Excusable extra movements such as killing a scorpion or a snake does not nullify it, either. If a hand moves less than three times, it does not nullify namâz. It has been said (by savants) that one movement with both hands nullifies namâz. Raising the hands up to the ears for the takbîrs in namâz does not nullify namâz. Yet it is makrûh.

    16- To stand and to make the sajda at a najs place nullifies namâz. If you spread something over the najs place, your namâz will not become nullified. Shoes and clothes that you are wearing are like parts of your skin. You cannot make the sajda by placing the skirt of your overcoat over a najs place. You must take it off and spread it on the ground. [You cannot perform a janâza [funeral] namâz if the shoes you are wearing are smeared with najâsat.]

    17- If your awrat parts remain open long enough for you to say “Subhânallah” three times in one rukn, if the amount of najâsat prescribed to nullify namâz exist on your skin or clothes, if you perform the namâz ahead of the imâm, and if you are in the same line with a woman [who has been following the same imâm], your namâz becomes nullified. If you yourself do all these, your namâz will be broken immediately.

    18- To perform namâz on something which you have spread over a najs place but which lets colour, odor, and moisture through nullifies namâz. If it does not let them through, namâz does not become nullified. Performing it after covering the place with plenty of earth does not nullify namâz.

    19- Turning your chest away from the qibla without a good excuse breaks namâz immediately. Turning your face or any other limb away does not nullify namâz, yet it is makrûh. If you cannot help turning away, it nullifies namâz if you remain so as long as one rukn. Walking one line (one metre and half) towards the qibla does not nullify namâz. If not in the direction of the qibla, or if you walk more than that continuously in the direction of the qibla, it nullifies namâz. Hence, it is not permissible to perform namâz walking.

    20- When a woman is kissed or held lustfully, her namâz becomes nullified.

    21- The namâz of people who apostate by heart becomes nullified. [That is, if they say through their heart, “If such and such a thing happens, so and so’s word proves true, and the Qur’ân al-karîm proves to be – may Allahu ta’âlâ protect us against such thoughts!– untrue,” or if a girl decides to marry a disbeliever, they (in the first example), or she (in the second example) becomes a disbeliever immediately]. A person who intends to become a disbeliever in the future or who believes something causing disbelief becomes a disbeliever, that is, a renegade immediately.

    22- While performing namâz, it is harâm to do something that will break your ablution or ghusl. If you do any one of them before having sat as long as the tashahhud in the last rak’at, your namâz immediately becomes nullified. If you do it after having sat as long as the tashahhud, your namâz will be all right. If your ablution breaks by itself, you may renew it and then continue with your namâz, but it is better to perform it again from the beginning. After you have sat as long as the tashahhud, if it breaks by itself, and if upon this you make an ablution at once and make the salâm, which is wâjib, or without making an ablution, if you yourself do something breaking the namâz, e.g. make the salâm, your namâz will remain unimpaired.

    23- If you omit one rukn and do not perform it during the (same) namâz, your namâz becomes nullified.

    24- If he begins and finishes a rukn before the imâm begins it, his namâz becomes nullified. But if the imâm begins the rukn later and they finish it at the same time, or if he withdraws before the imâm begins the rukn and then, when the imâm begins the rukn, makes the rukn again together with the imâm, his namâz will not become nullifed, yet it is makrûh. If a person begins a rukn after the imâm has finished it, his namâz will be acceptable.

    25- One who misses the first rak’at of the jamâ’at is called a masbûk. If a masbûk, after having sat as long as (to say the prayer called) the tashahhud and before the imâm having made the salâm, stands up and, after making the sajda of the rak’at he has missed, sees the imâm making sajda-i sahw and he, too, makes the sajda-i sahw with the imâm, his namâz will be nullified. Instead of resuming following the imâm (upon seeing the imâm making the sajda-i sahw), he should have completed his namâz and the sajda-i sahw on his own. If he stood up but did not make sajda, in that case it would be wâjib for him to sit back and make the sajda-i sahw together with the imâm.

    26- If people who forgot to make the sajda remember it during the ruku’, they prostrate themselves outright from the position of ruku’ and make the sajda, and (if they remember it) during the (following) sajda, they make the sajda (that they forgot) after sitting after the regular sajda (wherein they remembered about the forgotten sajda); then, (in both cases) they reperform the ruku’ and the sajda that they have performed. Then they make the sajda-i sahw. Or, at the end of or during the final sitting they make the sajda which they remembered or which they remember during the final sitting, then they sit again and say the the prayer Tahiyyât, and then make the sajda-i sahw. If they do not sit again, their namâz become nullified.

    27- If you do not perform again the rukn that you performed while sleeping, your namâz becomes nullified.

    28- If during the takbîrs in namâz you prolong the first “A” when saying “Allahu,” your namâz becomes nullified. If you prolong it when beginning namâz, your beginning the namâz is not valid.

    29- If saying the âyats melodiously defiles the meaning, it defiles your namâz, too.



    The wâjibs of namâz

    Question: What are the wâjibs [acts that are almost obligatory, almost as compulsory as fards, so not to be omitted] of the namâz?
    ANSWER
    They are as follows:
    1- To recite the sûra of Fâtiha.

    2- To recite a sûra or at least three short âyats after the Fâtiha.

    3- To recite the Fâtiha before the sûra.

    4- To recite the additional sûra, which is said after the Fâtiha, in the first and second rak’ats of fard namâzes and in every rak’at of the sunnats.

    5- To make the (two) sajdas one immediately after the other.

    6- To recite the sûra of Fâtiha in every rak’at of the sunnat and wâjib namâzes.

    7- To sit after the second rak’ats of the namâzes that contain three and four rak’ats.

    8- Not to sit longer than the tashahhud in the second rak’at.

    9- To put the nose together with the forehead down in the sajda.

    10- To recite the Attahiyyâtu during the sitting posture in the last rak’at.

    11- To observe the ta’dîl-i arkân [to remain motionless as long as to say “Subhânallah” after becoming calm at four places in namâz, namely, at ruku’, at sajda, at qawma, and at jalsa].

    12- To say “Assalâmu …” at the end of the namâz.

    13- To say the Qunut prayer in the last rak’at of the witr namâz.

    14- To say the takbîrs in the namâzes of ‘Iyd [Eid].

    15- For the imâm, to say the âyats loudly in the namâzes of morning, Friday, ‘Iyd, tarâwih, witr, and in the first two rak’ats of evening and night namâzes.

    16- For the imâm as well as for a person performing namâz individually, to recite the âyats on the level of a whisper in the fards of the early afternoon and late afternoon namâzes, in the third rak’at of the evening namâz and in the third and fourth rak’ats of the night namâz.

    Making iâda of a namâz
    Question: Is it wâjib to make iâda [to perform a namâz for the second time for any reason whatsoever] of a namâz that is performed by committing a makrûh?
    ANSWER
    It is makrûh tahrîmî to omit one of the wâjibs of the namâz. In this case, even if the namâz is valid, you will have committed a sin since you have omitted a wâjib. It is wâjib to make iâda of, that is, re-perform this namâz.

    It is also makrûh tahrîmî to omit one of the muakkad sunnats of namâz. To make iâda of a namâz performed in such a manner is sunnat, not wâjib.

    Question: It is stated in the book Endless Bliss: “It is sunnat to say the Fâtiha at the third and fourth rak’ats of fard namâzes. There are also savants stating that it is wâjib.” That is, at the third and fourth rak’ats, if we wait for some time without reciting anything and bend for the ruku’, will our namâz be valid?
    ANSWER
    Now that it is declared to be sunnat, it is makrûh to omit a sunnat. However, according to the savants stating that it is wâjib, it is wâjib to make iâda of that namâz performed without reciting the Fâtiha.

    In the Mâlikî and Shâfi’î Madhhabs, it is fard to say the Fâtiha at every rak’at, so it is fard for a person imitating those madhhabs to recite it.

    Question: In the Hanafî Madhhab, is it fard or wâjib to finish the namâz by saying the salâm?
    ANSWER
    According to the muftabih qawl, it is wâjib. As stated by Imâm-i A’zam, it is fard to finish the namâz of your own will, but it is not fard according to the Imâmayn.

    In the last rak’at, after having sat as long as the tashahhud, if you do something that nullifies the namâz, e.g. if you laugh, talk, eat or drink something, your namâz is valid. However, if your ablution breaks (by itself), in this case, according to the Imâmayn, your namâz is valid, too. But according to Imâm-i A’zam, you must renew your ablution at once, and you must come and make the salâm; so you finish the namâz of your own will. Even so, the fatwâ tallies with the report of Imâmayn.

    [muftabih qawl: the report preferred as the fatwâ from among the various ijtihâds of mujtahid scholars.]


    The sunnats of the namâz


    Question: What are the sunnats of the namâz?
    ANSWER
    They are as follows:

    1- To raise both hands up to the ears while saying the takbîr of iftitâh [saying Allahu akbar when beginning namâz]. Women raise their both hands as high as their shoulders.

    2- To turn the palms towards the Qibla.

    3- To fold the hands after saying the takbîr.

    4- To put the right hand on top of the left. Men put their hands under their navels, but women put their hands on their breasts.

    5- To say the Basmala [Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm] before the Fâtiha. To say "Âmîn" silently after the Fâtiha.

    6- To say the Subhânaka after the takbîr of iftitâh.

    7- To say the A'ûdhu [A’ûdhu billâhi min-ash-shaytânirrajîm] and the Basmala after the Subhânaka.

    8- To keep the heels a four-finger width away from each other in the qiyâm, but in the ruku’, qawma and sajda, they must be kept together.

    9- To say Subhâna rabbiyal-‘azîm three times in the ruku'.

    10- To say Subhâna rabbiyal-a’lâ three times in the sajda.

    11- To say the prayers “Allahumma salli …” and “Allahumma bârik …” in the last sitting.

    12- To turn the head to the right and then to the left while making the salâm [saying “Assalâm-u ‘alaikum wa rahmat-ullah”] at the end of the namâz.

    13- To say a sûra in the first rak’at twice as long as the one to be said in the second rak’at. [This rule applies to the imâm.]

    14- To keep the heel-bones together in the ruku’.

    15- To keep the back and the head level during the ruku’.

    16- To open the fingers and to put them on the knees in the ruku’.

    17- To say Sami' Allahu liman hamidah while straightening up from the ruku’.

    18- To say Rabbanâ lakal hamd when standing upright after the ruku’.

    19- In the sajda, (it is sunnat for men) to put the knees on the ground and to keep the thighs away from the abdomen. Women keep their abdomens placed on their thighs.

    20- In the sajda, to keep the fingers close together (that is, to leave no space between them) and bend the toes turning them towards the Qibla.

    21- To sit between the two sajdas.

    22- To turn the fingers and the toes towards the Qibla during the sajda.

    23- To place the hands in line with the ears in the sajda.

    24- To say Allahu akbar while bowing for the ruku’ and the sajdas and when straightening up from the sajdas.

    25- For men to keep their right foot upright while sitting on the left foot.

    26- In the sitting posture, to make the far ends of the fingers reach only as far as the beginning edge of the knees and to let the fingers free.

    27- To recite only the Sûrat-ul-Fâtiha in the last two rak’ats of fard [obligatory] namâzes which contain four rak’ats.

    28- To say the adhân and iqâmat. [For men]

    Question: Is it sunnat to make iâda [to perform a namâz for the second time for any reason whatsoever] of a namâz that has been performed by omitting its sunnats?
    ANSWER
    If the sunnats that are inside the namâz are omitted deliberately, it is sunnat to make iâda of that namâz. If they are omitted inadvertently, it is not necessary to make iâda of that namâz.

    Question: Is it wâjib to make iâda of a namâz that has been performed by omitting its sunnats, for example, if it is performed without a headgear?
    ANSWER
    It is not wâjib; it is sunnat.

    The thumbs
    Question: When we keep our fingers close together in the sajda, is it necessary to adjoin the thumbs as well?
    ANSWER
    Yes



    The mustahabs of the namâz


    Question: What are the mustahabs of the namâz?
    ANSWER
    People who do the mustahabs attain many blessings and incur no sin if they omit them. That is, the thawâb of the namâz does not decrease, but they will be deprived of the thawâb earned for doing them. Some of them are as follows:

    1- (For men) To make tips of thumbs touch the earlobes when saying the takbîr of iftitâh.

    2- To look at the place of sajda during the qiyâm.

    3- To look at the feet in the ruku’.

    4- In the sajda, to look at the place where the nose is put.

    5- To open the fingers and put them on the knees in the ruku’.

    6- To keep the head and the neck level in the ruku’.

    7- To say the tasbîhs [i.e. Subhâna rabbiyal-‘azîm and Subhâna rabbiyal-a’lâ] in the ruku’ and sajda 5-11 times.

    8- To keep both feet close together in the ruku’.

    9- (For men) To hold the wrist tightly when folding the hands in the qiyâm.

    10- To put first the right knee and then the left knee while kneeling down for the sajda.

    11- To perform the sajda in between two hands.

    12- In the sajda, to put the nose down before putting the forehead.

    13- To look at the two sides of the nose during the sajda.

    14- To cover the mouth with the outer part of the hand when yawning in namâz.

    15- Not to wipe beads of sweat in namâz.

    16- Not to cough or yawn.

    17- Men should make their elbows stay raised off the floor. However, women rest their elbows on the floor.

    18- To keep the arms and thighs apart from the abdomen in the sajda. [For men]

    19- To raise the hands from the sajda after raising the head.

    20- To raise the knees from the sajda after raising the hands.

    21- In the sitting posture, to look at the knees and to place the hands on the knees in a straight manner towards Qibla.

    22- When saying the salâm to the right and to the left, to turn the head and to look at the ends of the shoulders.

    23- When saying the salâm (at the end of namâz), to make an intention that you are offering your salâm to the imâm, to the Angels of Haphaza, and to the jamâ’at.

    The thawâb of observing a mustahab
    Question: Does it produce thawâb to observe a mustahab?
    ANSWER
    Hadrat Imâm-i Rabbânî “quddisa sirruh” declares:
    We should not slight the mustahabs. They are acts loved by Allahu ta’âlâ. Were it known that a certain act He loves could be done by sacrificing the entire world, anyone who could do it would make a great profit, like receiving a precious diamond in return for a few pieces of a broken flower-pot, or similar to resuscitating one’s dead darling by giving away a few pieces of gravel. (First Volume, 266th Letter)

    To omit a mustahab
    Question: When we omit one of the mustahabs of the namâz, will the namâz be makrûh?
    ANSWER
    When we omit a mustahab, our namâz will not become makrûh. In other words, the thawâb of our namâz does not diminish, but we will be deprived of the thawâb gained as a result of observing a mustahab.
     

Bu Sayfayı Paylaş