Bazı İllerimizin İngilizce Olarak Tanıtımı

'İngilizce Tercümeler' forumunda Siraç tarafından 12 Mart 2009 tarihinde açılan konu

  1. Siraç

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    Bazı İllerimizin İngilizce Olarak Tanıtımı konusu
    İZMİR

    My city's name's history:

    In history it is said that there was a group of women named 'amozon women' and this group of women were lived in aegeon region before İzmir had taken it's name.These women were hate from the men and they use the men for heavy works and men were serving them.Amozon women were so strong that they were fighting against the men and for carring their weapon they cut one of their bust.
    One day the chief of the group of Amozon women fell into love and she decided to marry him so they combine their lands. This chief changes her name and she decided to take the name 'Smyrna'. And then the man whom she married decided to give the name of his wife to their lands.
    Since that day 'Smyrna' became ancient name of İzmir. By the years passed the name Smyrna has changed so many times and İzmir is the last name of these lands.


    MY BEAUTİFUL CİTY

    İzmir is known as the pearl of Aegean region. . It is Turkey's third largest city and second most important port. Also it is an important tourism centre in this region.There are lots of wonderful places to visit and if you want to have fun time İzmir is the best province for you.
    The people are very warmblooded and they are famous with their hospitality.Also they are friendly and helpful.İn adicition the girls have become famous with their beauty.





    CLIMATE:


    The weather is a typcal mediterranean climate.The summers are hot and the winters are warm. The average temperature is 18 degrees. In winters the weather is sometimes rainy and very cold but in general it has a nice climate.In summers the weather is always sunny but some summer nights are a little bit cold.
    Usually people can't decide what to wear when they want to go out. Because the weather can change. Snowfall is rare but this winter it was very surprising to see İzmir covered with snow.






    ACCOMODATİON:
    The accomodation will never be a problem for you. Because there are lots of hotels and they have wonderful restaurants and they are very comfortable. You have lots of options to choose a hotel among them.Hilton Ege Palas Efes Princess are some of the famous hotels.



    RESTAURANTS:
    The best restaurants are in Sahilevleri and İnciraltı. Fish is the best meal that you can eat. Especially cipura is the best fish that people prefer. You can find this fish in any of İzmir's sea food restaurants. And also you can eat your fish near the sea. İn addition there are very varied cafes which have delicous meals and which have very fantastic ambience.You can also eat 'Kumru' and 'Boyoz' which are peculiar to İzmir. You can't find the delicious taste of these foods in anywhere else.


    I LOVE THE NEİGHBOORHOOD OF MY CİTY
    ALSANCAK:
    Alsancak is the centre of shopping and fantastic cafes. There are modern buildings and attractive shops along the street and many people prefer to go there for shopping. Shops and cafes are located in streets and they are far from the main street so people are not disturbed by the traffic.
    Alsancak is the place that the teenagers prefer to go. Because there are lots of fantastic cafes and these cafes have delicious foods. Also Hilton hotel is located in this neighboorhood and it's game centre is prefered by most of the teenagers. Also you can see .....s who are playing game in this game centre. It is a place for having fun and people from every age can have fun there.
    BARLAR SOKAGI:
    Street of Bars. You can find live music in those bars and discos can be prefered too. The bars are different from the usual bars because attractive old houses are restored and run as a bar.
    ASANSOR:
    An elevator from 19th century. It is 51 metres in height. It links Mithat Paşa street to the Halil Rıfat Paşa street. It was built in 1907 and restored by the municipality in 1993. On the upper side there is an open-air cafe and a restaurant that offers you a delicous meal with a breathtaking view of İzmir and the bay.

    BALCOVA:
    It is on the roads of Urla and Çeşme. If you want to go to Balçova Thermal Springs turn left at İnciraltı cross roads.It is one kilometre away. This may have been the first hydrotherapy center of the ancient world. Today there are modern facilities for visitors to the hot springs and luxury hotels. The temperature of the water is 63 degrees C.

    CLOCK TOWER:
    Clock tower is another symbol of İzmir and it was build in Konak Meydan in 1901. It is heart of the city and it can be said to be a meeting place for many people. 25 M HIGHT

    BORNOVA:
    Ege Universty's campus is located in this area and İzmir Manisa roads passes through Bornova.İt is seven kilometre away from the city centre.
    CESME:


    Cesme which is 80 km away from İzmir is a holiday resort with excellent accomodations and restaurants. Altınyunus Sheraton Ontur are some of the famous hotels that are usually prefered by tourists. Restaurants in Dalyan Köy are the most popular places for eating fish and watching the beautiful clear blue waters of Çeşme. Çeşme has also got a wonderful night life to have fun. Seaside Joy Nispet Mekan are some of the night clubs.


    FOCA:
    It is a fishing town 50 km away from Izmir. Foça is famous with it's phoakaians. You can find them on the islands and it will be very entertaining to go these islands by ship. Also Foça have many hotels and pensions. You can eat fresh fish there because as I said before it is a fishing town.

    HOUSE OF THE VIRGIN MARY:
    It is said that Virgin Mary had spent her last years there. It is located between Selçuk and Ephesus. Travel agencies in İzmir organise day tours to this place.

    IZMIR FAIR:
    It is an international trade fair that has been held since 1932. Between august and september famous people come to this fair and they give concerts to people of İzmir.


    KADIFEKALE:
    The castle offers you an excellent view of İzmir.

    KARSIYAKA:
    It is located on the north shore of İzmir and is means "opposite shore"People who live in Karşıyaka think that they are diffirent from people of İzmir and they have an individual culture and history. Also they have their own football team. They are always quarrel with Göztepe football team and it is impossible to pass near them after Karşıyaka and Göztepe matchs.
    KEMERALTI:
    It is one of the shopping centres of İzmir. It is consist of narrow streets and here you can find jewellers drapers shoemaker and shops specialising in all kinds of goods from leather to olives and cheese. The atmosphere of the buildings are very different from other shopping centers because they have been in Konak Kemeraltı since 19th century and the buildins are old fashioned.
    KORDON:
    It is located between Konak meydan and Alsancak. It becomes one of the most crowded places at the weekends. Especially young people prefer to go there because there are bars and some places for shopping.Kordon is also famous with it's horse-drawn phaetons with colorful ponpons and young lovers loves to wander with them. Kordon is very famous that there are lots of songs that are written for Kordon :
    "My lover seemed to say/Let us meet on the Kordon one day/Perhaps at ten o'clock".

    This is one of the popular old songs.
    PASAPORT:
    The name of the dock between Konak and Cumhuriyet Meydan. Pasaport Dock was built in 1876. This area was full of old fashioned coffee houses which served waterpipes as well as tea and coffee but today pubs took their place.
    PERGAMUM:
    The place where parchment is thought to have been invented. İn the centre of Pergamum Acropolis and the world's steepest amphitheatre is located. This amphi theatre has 16000 seats. This complex was one of the foremost heath cent ers of the ancient world.

    SELCUK:
    It is 94 km away from İzmir. SeIcuk is the site of Ephesus Museum a magnificent castle and the 6th century Basilica of St.John. The road to the resorts of Marmaris and Bodrum passes through Selcuk also Kuşadası is twenty minutes away from there.
    URLA:
    Urla is a resort 42 km from Izmir n the road to Cesme. People of İzmir spend their summers and weekends here. This city was the birthplace of the illustrious philosopher Anaxogoras and is latterly also famous for a local pastry dish "katmer" and for its meat and fish restaurants.
    WILD HERBS:
    Dishes made with fresh herbs have a special place in the Aegean cuisine. When spring comes local markets are filled with green vegetables such as radika turpotu hardalotu and many more. The leaves are washed blanched and served with a ressing of lemon juice and olive oil.


    İZMİR'S BAY;
    İzmir's bay is very dirty. But it's going to clean by some people. They are working for it. And somewhere sea's smeel is very bad. You feel very bad because it.

    9 Eylül 1922 / İZMİR
    "I love all İzmir and people of İzmir; I am sure that; beautiful İzmir's perfect people love metoo."
    It was said by Atatürk in 1922

    İSTANBUL

    The Istanbul City
    Istanbul is an old old city you can see the remains of many ancient civilizations and their culture in harmony with Turkish culture. The old versus the new the traditional versus the modern is a conflict a visitor often observes. The city is full of contrasts and colorful views
    So enjoy one of them:
    The diverse ethnicity of the city is another point which is worth examinig. The Minorities sum up to a majority and build up an enormous population. The natives of the city are very typical you can easily identify them from the look in their eyes. take a look at the good old days.

    ARRIVAL TO THE CITY
    Turkey demands an official entry visa from citizens of several countries. Before your departure to Turkey it is better to check with a Turkish consulate in your country to determine if you need a visa. In some cases you can obtain a visa upon arrival at Ataturk airport for a small fee. After passing from the passport control it is appropriate to declare your foreign currency and your valuable objects and have it recorded in your passport. As elsewhere too there are limits on the amount of alcoholic drinks and cigarettes that can be brought in: two boxes of cigarettes 50 cigars 200 grams of tobacco and 2.5 liters of alcoholic drinks are allowed.
    WORK HOURS AND HOLIDAYS
    Banks are open weekdays from 8:30 AM until noon or 12:30 PM depending on the bank and from 1:30 PM until 5.00 PM. However there are some banks which continue to serve during lunch breaks.
    Museums are generally open Tuesday through Sunday from 9:30 AM until 5.00 PM or 5:30 PM and closed on Monday. Palaces are open the same hours but are closed on Thursday. For specific information on museums please visit our museums section.
    Shops and bazaars are normally open Monday through Saturday from 9:30 AM to 1.00 PM and from 2.00 PM to 7.00 PM and closed all day on Sunday. But most stores in shopping malls and crowded streets are open seven days a week including lunch breaks.
    You can find restaurants or cafes open virtually at any time of the day or night.
    HOLIDAYS
    January 1 (New Year's Day) December 24-26 2000 (Seker Bayram marking the end of Ramadan) March 5-8 2001(Kurban Bayram another important religious holiday). Muslim religious holidays are based on the lunar calendar and will shift about 10 days backwards each year. The dates given here for the Seker and Kurban holidays are for 2000 and 2001.
    April 23 (National Independence and Childrens Day) May 19 (Ataturk's Commemoration Day) August 30 (Zafer Bayram or Victory Day) October 29 (Cumhuriyet Bayram or Republic Day celebrating AtatŸrk's proclamation of the Turkish republic in 1923).
    VISITING THE MOSQUES
    Most mosques in Istanbul are open to the public during the day. Prayer sessions called namaz last 30 to 40 minutes and are observed five times daily. Tourists should however avoid visiting mosques midday on Friday when Muslims are required to worship.
    For women bare arms and legs are not acceptable inside a mosque. Men should avoid wearing shorts as well. Women should not enter a mosque without first covering their heads with a scarf. Before entering a mosque shoes must be removed.
    MAIL
    Post offices are painted bright yellow and have PTT (Post Telegraph and Telephone) signs on the front. The central Post office is open Monday through Saturday from 8 AM to 9 PM Sunday from 9 AM to 7PM. Smaller ones are open Monday through Friday between 8:30 AM and 5.00 PM.
    THE MONEY
    The monetary unit is the Turkish lira (TL) which comes in bank notes of 250.000; 500000; 1000000 5.000000 and 10.000.000. Smaller denominations come in coins of 25000; 50000 and 100.000.
    In Istanbul traveler's checks are rarely accepted. ATMs can be found in even the smallest Turkish towns. Most accept international credit cards or bank cards (a strip of logos is usually displayed above the ATM). Almost all ATMs have a language key to enable you to read the instructions in English.
    VAT
    The value-added tax here called KDV is 17%. Hotels typically combine it with a service charge of 10% to 15% and restaurants usually add a 15% service charge.
    Value-added tax is nearly always included in quoted prices. Certain shops are authorized to refund the tax (ask).
    ELECTRICITY
    The electrical current in Turkey is 220 volts 50 cycles alternating current (AC); wall outlets take Continental-type plugs with two or three round prongs.
    SAFETY & SECURITY
    The streets of Istanbul are considerably safer than their counterparts in the United States or Western Europe. Travelers should nevertheless take care of their valuables as pickpockets although not as common as in the U.S. or Europe do operate in the major cities and tourist areas.
    Where the blowing winds from the seven peaks of Anatolian Olympos merge into each other...
    Where Amazon's cooled their bodies in the waves that break apart from the Black Sea and roll mightily against the shore ...
    Where love is symbolized in the Tower of Leandros ...
    Where stand the rocks of Symplegad that brought nightmares to the Argonauts ...
    Built on seven hills on Asia and Europe ...
    Capital of three empires ...
    Where romance and traffic jam go hand in hand ...
    Lively and exciting ...
    A world metropolis ...
    That is Istanbul ...
    Would you like us to guide you through this legendary city? For the ones who live here for the occasional visitors and for those of you who are entering it for the first time - whichever aspect of this city you want to experience we will help you to reach it easily.
    BEYAZIT TOWER
    Almost all houses of old Istanbul were made of wood and fire was therefore a very real threat and caused horrible disasters. This 50 meter high stone fire tower was built in 1828 by famed architects of the Balyan family on order of Sultan Mahmud II.

    BOSPHORUS
    During the Byzantine period when the villages along the Bosphorus strait had no roads linking them to each other the people earned their living from fishing and gardening. The Ottoman sultans later had several palaces and villas built on these shores.

    European side: Dolmabahce Palace with its eclectic structure reflecting western architectural styles was built on the Bosphorus in the19th century. Next is the Besiktas area where stands the statue and tomb of Captain Barbaros Hayrettin in front of the Naval Museum and near the Museum of Fine Arts. On this side of the Bosphorus are many buildings by the Balyan family of architects the most significant of which is the Çiragan Palace.This palace suffered great damage by fire in the late 19th century and lay in ruin until recently when it was restored and made into a hotel. The seaside gateway of the Yildiz Palace and Gardens is also here.
    Further along the shore are the Feriye palaces then Ortaköy Square and Ortaköy mosque an attractive location where one feels the texture of the city at its best. Next passing under the great columns of the Bosphorus Bridge you pass by Kuruçesme Arnavutköy Bebek Rumelihisari (fortress) Emirgan Üstinye Yeniköy Tarabya Kirecburnu Büyükdere and Sariyer finally reaching the end of the European side of the Bosphorus at Rumeli Kavagi last point before the entrance of the Black Sea.
    Asian side: Opposite Rumeli Kavagi is Anadolu Kavagi on the Asian side of the mouth of the Bosphorus. South along the shore past Yusa Hill is Beykoz. Though it is quite a distance from city center Istanbul residents usually go to eat the best fish at Beykoz. Next is Pasabahçe famous for its glass and bottle factories as well as liquor factories of the state monopoly.
    After Pasabahce are Çubuklu and Anadoluhisar (Anatolian Fortress) famed for the good quality of clay on the shores of the Göksu and Küçüksu freshwater rivers that flow into the Bosphorus.
    Hence the development of pottery making in the area. Next is a bay between Vaniköy and Çengelköy where stands the Kuleli Military Academy. After Çengelköy comes Beylerbeyi and its famous Beylerbeyi Palace.
    Coming to the sea just past Kuzguncuk is today's Üsküdar known in Byzantine times as the "Golden City." Today this neighborhood is adorned with the Mihrimah the Semsi Pasha and Yeni Valide mosques built by the great architect Sinan and the famous Selimiye barracks. At the meeting point of Kadiköy and Üsküdar stands the Haydarpasa Railway Station last train stop in Asia. Kadiköy (ancient Calchedon) is one of the oldest inhabited districts of the city. Today it has luxury bayside
    neighborhoods including Moda and Fenerbahce.
    ISTIKLAL STREET
    This street formerly called Grande rue de Pera was named Istiklal Caddesi by the Turks. In the 19th century most of the foreign embassies moved to this quarter. Today it is one of the city's leading shopping and entertainment districts
    .
    THE GRAND BAZAAR
    The Grand Bazaar consists of 4000 shops on a series of covered streets leading to a central avenue. The oldest sections are the Sandal Bedesten (cloth auction) and Cevahir Bedesten (jewelry market). The streets are named according to the trades such as gold and silver sellers carpet sellers slipper sellers bootsellers booksellers pursemakers etc. The most oriental atmosphere in Istanbul is found in the bazaar which also houses many good restaurants and cafes.

    GALATA TOWER
    The tower was built in 1348 for protection at the northernmost point of the Genovese walls. At that time it was called the ``tower of Jesus". Once it was used as a prison for a period in the Ottoman times. In the 17th century during the reign of Murat IV Hezarfen Ahmet Çelebi flew from this tower on self-made wings and landed in Üsküdar on the opposite shore of the Bosphorus.



    GOLDEN HORN
    An old trading point and popular shoreline residential area during the Byzantine period it was largely inhabited by Jewish immigrants from Spain during the Ottoman period. The mixtures of Armenians Greeks Gypsies and Turks living along its shores reflected the city's colorful mosaic. Since 1880 the famed Cibali cigarette factory has been operating there.
    In Fener is the patriarchate and mother church of the Greek Orthodox Church and nearby the Bulgarian Church built of cast iron in the neo-gothic style.
    At the far end of the Golden Horn is the Eyüp neighborhood and Eyüp Sultan Mosque the most famous monument of these shores which has drawn countless Muslim pilgrims since the day it was built. On the cliffs above the mosque is the teahouse of Pierre Loti which offers the city's finest view of the Golden Horn.
    TAKSIM
    This area was once used as a cemetery. Later a big barracks was built around the square. Today some of these buildings are used by Istanbul Technical University. The Taksim Barrack was torn down in the Republican period. The square was named for the depot located there that regulated the water distribution of the city beginning in Ottoman times.

    MISIR BAZAAR
    The bazaar that have been built connected to the Yenicami complex takes its name from the source of the spices in old times.. The merchants of this colorful old covered market also called the Spice Bazaar sell spices herbs medicinals dried fruits and a myriad of other goods in barrels and baskets. Today there are several boutiques found there.
    SULTANAHMET
    The most important monumental buildings of the city are found in this section of old Istanbul. Ever since the Roman period the imperial buildings and sanctuaries were situated there. Where Sultanahmet mosque (the "Blue Mosque") stands today imperial palaces had stood and Topkapi Palace stands atop the Roman Acropolis. The great cathedral Hagia Sophia of the Byzantine emperors still stands near Sultanahmet mosque.Sultanahmet is the mosque only mosque in the world with six minarets.
    All these monuments remain in place with the exception of the famed equestrian statues that once adorned the square and were later carried off by the Crusaders to Venice where they still stand in St. Mark's Cathedral square.
    Ahmet III Fountain (3. Ahmet Çesmesi): Standing just to the right of the Bab-i-Humayun Gate of Topkapi Palace this fountain is one of the most striking examples of the Baroque style fountains built in the city at the beginning of the 18th century. The fountain has a spout on each of its four sides.
    The Built Pillar (Örmetas): It is said that the bronze plating that once covered this column was melted down and pressed into coins during the Latin invasion. During the Ottoman period acrobats used to climb up this rather odd-looking column and perform their feats.
    Egyptian Obelisk (Dikilitas): After the world hegemony had passed to Rome this column was brought from Egypt to Constantinople in 390 A.D. by Emperor Theodosius and placed on a square pedestal in the center of the hippodrome in the spina.
    The obelisk could also be called as Theodosius Column. Reliefs on the pedestal depict Theodosius watching the races in the hippodrome and tell the story of how the column was erected. The Egyptian hieroglyphics on the column itself tell about sacrifices that thePharaoh Tutmosis made to the god Amon-Ra.
    The Hippodrome: The hippodrome which was built during the reign of Septimus Severus on the square next to where Sultan Ahmet mosque is located was 480 meters long by 117 meters wide and could contain 100000 people. Many sculptures adorned the walls of the hippodrome. By means of special underground passageways the emperor could reach the hippodrome or Hagia Sophia without leaving the palace. In the center of the arena was the spina around which the horse chariots would race. The hippodrome occupied a very important place in Byzantine social life. The most exciting of the many amusements that took place there were the chariot races between four teams representing the four elements: the blues representing air greens representing earth whites representing water and reds representing fire. In Ottoman times hippodrome became an area where polo games and the circumcision ceremonies of the crown princes took place and named At Meydani.
    Kaiser Wilhelm Fountain (Alman Çesmesi): This fountain was a gift of the kaiser to the Ottoman sultan.
    Milion (Milion tasi): Situated today at the corner opposite to Hagia Sophia this stone was known during the era of the Eastern Roman Empire to indicate point zero the forming of the known universe.

    Serpentine Column (Burmali sutun): This stone made of the bronze shields of Persian soldiers who were killed at the battle of Palatea was brought to Constantinople from the Apollo Temple of Delphi. Its name is derived from the relief of three intertwined snakes that encircle it. It is said that the three snakes once had a golden bowl placed over their heads but this was melted down in order to press coins during the Latin invasion of the city. The two snake heads were lost during the Ottoman period and one of them is now displayed in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum.
    PRE-HISTORY Approximately 300000 years ago Istanbul gave her lands free for settlement in the Yarimburgaz cave beside Kucuk Cekmece Lake. Human beings of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods around the end of the last Ice Age lived within the cave near the lake. Excavations have uncovered tools belonging to the early Paleolithic period (100000 years ago).
    Human beings of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods around the end of the last Ice Age lived within the cave near the lake. Excavations have uncovered tools belonging to the early Paleolithic period (100000 years ago). In excavations in the Agacli area to the north were found tools from the middle and late Paleolithic periods.
    There was a significant cultural settlement around 5000 B.C. at Fikirtepe in the Kurbalideredere area which is close to Chalcedon. In the waters of Keras as the sunshine turned into golden reflections on one of the hills ruler of all seas god Poseidon and beauty of beauties Keroessa became parents of a son. They named him Byzas. Byzas grew up and built Byzantion. And the name of the bay Keras became the "Golden Horn" because of the golden reflections.
    BYZANTION PERIOD
    Colonialists coming from the city of Megara in central Greece and from the Aegean city of Miletos in 7 B.C. started the history of Byzantion. Built on a peninsula Byzantion was blessed with food from the sea had a safe harbor at the entrance of the Golden Horn and an acropolis that was easily defensible. Its location on the sea trade routes and the fertile lands available for agriculture caused it to flourish within a short period.
    ROMAN EMPIRE
    By 200 B.C. it had become difficult for the imperial capital Rome to rule over the vast area that made up the Roman Empire reaching from Spain to Mesopotamia. A new administrative center was needed especially in order to get a firm hold on the eastern part of the empire.
    Beginning in 146 B.C. Byzantion which was situated at the crossroads of the trade routes became the administrative center of the Eastern Roman Empire and became known as Nea Roma. As the capital city of the eastern part of the empire Nea Roma assumed an important role in world politics and culture. In keeping with this new status new construction was started.Harbors and waterways were reconstructed. In the hippodrome at the center of the city the emperor and nearly the entire population would gather to watch wild animal races and athletic events and enjoy feasts and celebrations. After Emperor Constantine took the throne the city was renamed Constantinopolis (May 11 330)

    BYZANTINE EMPIRE
    The Byzantines whose capital was regarded as an extention of Rome expressed more and more the desire to direct themselves toward the heritage of Greek antiquity. The buildings of this period were ornamented withartworks in the style of antiquity.
    The great cathedral Hagia Sophia stood in all its splendor...
    The most destructive blow hit the city during the Latin invasions. The invaders did great damage to the city. Homes and religious buildings were subject to arson and looting. After the invasions ended the city started reconstruction work in the year 1261 though it could not be restored to its former glory.
    Its population formerly 500000 had decreased to 50000. Production of all types diminished and the people suffered from hunger. A 1000-year-old page of history was coming to an end and the city was preparing itself for a rebirth.
    OTTOMAN EMPIRE
    In the year 1453 the army of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II (Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror) conquered the city. First of all the oldest buildings and the formerly magnificent but dilapidated city walls were restored. On the ruins of the Byzantine foundations the buildings of the basic institutions of the Ottomans were built. The great water system with its huge cisterns was repaired and returned to use. The city had developed its Ottoman identity resembling its present character.
    With the addition of the buildings of the famous architect (mimar) Sinan the city had again become the capital of a great empire. Together with the remaining population after the conquest people coming from all over the empire from all kinds of ethnic origins and religions created a colorful mixture. In Istanbul - the new Constantinopolis - the cultural variety brought in by the immigrants enriched the cultural texture of the city.The bedesten where the merchants were settled and the many han where the craftsmen were to be found turned into centers that enabled this harbor city to develop trade with the outside world. Huge markets were built further supporting trade. During the period of the height of Ottoman imperial power the city was covered all over with tulips in what is known as the"Tulip Era." In the 19th century efforts modernization were undertaken. Istanbul entered the 20th century worn out and burdened by its history as the capital city of three great empires. At that time the Ottomans were just about to end their imperial period of 630 years.
    THE REPUBLICAN ERA
    After World War I resistance movements became active during the Allied occupation of Istanbul an occupation that lasted for nearly five years. When the resistance movement in Anatolia finally gained success the last of the foreign soldiers left the city on October 5 1923. On October 6 the Turkish army entered the city heralding the message of a new government led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk the leader of the Turkish independence war and his colleagues had made a decision in the new National Assembly that Istanbul would turn over its function as capital of the new nation to Ankara.
    Under republican rule much new construction activity took place in Istanbul starting with the building of family houses in the 1930s.
    In 1950s more than 7300 buildings were torn down and the road system reorganized. This caused historic changes in the fabric of the city.
    When the ferry boats became insufficient to serve the increasing flow of traffic across the Bosphorus between the Asian and the European sides of the city in the 1970's the first suspension bridge was built. Istanbul had assumed an eminent role in the nation's cultural lifeas well as the economy. Immigrants from the rural areas hit the road with the motto "even the soil and the stones in Istanbul are made of gold" leading to much unplanned and devastating construction. On the one hand there are slums built over night and on the other huge shopping centers and giant industrial structures. Such is the world metropolis of republican Istanbul ever changing and developing in all of its aspects.
     
  2. Siraç

    Siraç Site Yetkilisi Admin Editör

    GENERAL INFORMATION

    Gaziantep the biggest city in the southeast of Turkey and the sixth biggest one in Turkey is one of the first settlements in Anatolia.
    Ruins which belong to the Stone Calcoholitic and Copper Age Hittite Mitani Assyrian Roman and Byzantine Islam and Turkish - Islamic Period can be traced everywhere in the area .
    The region was under the Hittite control in the 1700s BC. The ancient city of Duluk which is in the north of the city today was an important religious center of the Hittites. During the period of Caliph Omar as a result of the wars to spread the Islam out of the Arab Peninsula the Moslem troops who defeated the Byzantine Army at Yermuk in 636 under the command of lyaz Bin Ganern captured the area. As a result the people admitted Islam and Omeriye Mosque was built in this period as a symbol of the conquest. After the .Manzikert victory in 1071 Suleiman Shah conquered Antep and surroundings in 1084 and annexed the area to the Seljuk Empire. On August 201516 Yavuz Sultan Selim Khan came to Antep and stayed here for three days. After Mercidabik Victory against Memaluks in 1516 the city came under the reign of the Ottoman Empire.
    Gaziantep and the surrounding area which was occupied by the French and English troops after the World Warl received recognition everywhere in the world for its defense and unique heroism which amazed everybody.
    Turkish Grand National Assembly granted Antep the "GAZi" title on February 8 1921 because of this achievement.
    Gaziantep which was called Ayintap Antep Kala-i Pusus and Hantap got its name from the depth of the history and the title from the Independence War with full of heroism.
    Gaziantep which is a leader in trade and industry in the region is an important city with its Independence War Memories the rich historical and cultural surroundings highways international airport train station delicious foods extraordinary handcrafts mosques fortresses caravansaries baths tombs churches castles plateaus excursion and picnic places.


    GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION

    Gaziantep is situated where the Mediterranean region and South East Anatolia region meet. Gaziantep a city which has common border with Syria has most of its land in the west of South East Anatolia and some part in the east of the Mediterranean region. Gaziantep is surrounded by Birecik and Halfeti towns of Urfa in the east Besni town of Adiyaman in the northeast Pazarcik town of Kahramanmaras in the north Bahce town of Osmaniye in the west Hassa town of Hatay in the southeast and Kilis province in the south. The lands of Gaziantep take place on the 38 28 and 38 01 east longitudes and 36 38 and 37 32' north latitudes. With 6216 square kms of lands Gaziantep occupies 1% of Turkey's lands. The altitude of the city center 850 meters from the sea level but the altitude changes between 250 m. and 1250 m. 27% ottne land is occupied by lowlands.
    Mountains in the boundaries of city take place in the north from the west of Araban lowland and lie towards the west of the city. These mountains which are extension of Southeastern Taurus Ridge have very smooth lines. The mountains in the west of the area are natural borders between Gaziantep and Kahramanmaraş-Hatay lowlands. Sof Mountains lie as extension of South East Taurus mountains. In the south of Sof Mountains lies Gaziantep highland. Dulukbaba mountains lie in the northwest of the city. The peak of Dulukbaba mountains is 1250 meters high. Gani Baba and Sarikaya mountains which are parts of Sof mountains in the direction of Hatay are about 1100 meters high. In the west of Gani Baba and Sarikaya mountains Islahiye lowland is situated and lslahiye plateau is situated in the east. Sam Mountains which are 1050 in. high are situated between Sof mountains and Dulukbaba mountains. Barak (Doganpinar) Araban Yavuzeli and Oguzeli lowlands are important lowlands. Euphrates Nizip Afrin Merziman and Alleben streams are important rivers.


    HISTORICAL PLACES


    GAZIANTEP FORTRESS
    Gaziantep Fortress is worthy of attention due to its hidden history and its magnificence and is one of the best examples of fortresses in Turkey.
    Its exact history is not known but as a result of studies carried out it was found that it was inhabited from the Calcoholitic Age. Its present form dates from the period of Justinian in the 6'h century AD. It is square in shape and has a circumference of 1200 metres.
    The walls which were built with large stones were fortified by 12 towers. In addition there is a mosque a cistern and some ruins in the castle and in the basement caves corridors rooms and a water source may be seen.

    BELKIS (ZEUGMA)
    At Belkis (Zeugma) 10 km south east of Nizip ruins from the Greek Roman and Byzantine Periods can be seen in the village of the same name.

    RUMKALE (HROMGLA)
    Hromgia is 25 km from Yavuzeli and 62 km from Gaziantep. Although the precise history of Hromgia is unknown it is thought to have been built during the late Hittite Period around 840 B.C.
    It is believed that in the Roman Period Chiristians made Hromgla a center of Christianity and tried to spread Chiristianity to Hromgla and its surroundings. It is also said that John one of Jesus' apostles saved manuscripts of the Bible in in Hromgla which were later taken to Beriut. For this reason Hromgla is a sacred place for Christiants. When the crusaders were defeated and driven out of the region the Moslems captured Hromgla and the surrounding area and there are many remains in the castle and the area from the Turkish Islamic Period. In the castle where characteristics of Turkish Islamic Ert can be found there is also a mosque but it is not in use.

    TILMEN TUMULUS
    Tilmen Tumulus 10km east of Islahiye is 24m. high and one of the biggest tumuli of the region. Excavations have established there was a big city there in the late 3000s BC. The city consisted of inner and outer castles the walls of which were fortified with large cut stones.


    TRADITIONAL GAZIANTEP ARCHITECHTURE

    When we observe Gaziantep throughout the history we can find out about its very rich architecture which goes back in the history. If we mention the buildings in the city character we should mention first houses mosques shopping centers baths. It is possible to observe the influence of the climate topographic characteristics plantation and social life while building these structures.
    It has the architecture suitable to the Northern Mesopotamian tradition as a typical Islamic city. Other buildings take place around the religious ones and are developed as integrated buildings.
    Because it has the steppe climate and summers are very hot the concept of having a yard is very important in the architecture. The yards are called "Hayat" as most of life is spent there.
    In Gaziantep manufacturing and trading have gained more importance than agriculture.
    Many shopping centers were built in the settlements towards to Kozluca and around the castle. Tuz Han İki Kapılı Han Hişva Hanı Yüzükçü Hanı Millet Hanı were very busy shopping centers in the 16'h century.
    Streets are very narrow and shady. There are some places called "kabaltı" which are houses with a road beneath. There are only six "kabaltı''s nowadays. There are also blocked streets called "dehliz".

    GAZİANTEP HOUSES
    Gaziantep houses are made of soft calcareous stones called "havara" or "keyrnik" and have thick walls. Generally they are one or two-storeyed but there are some three-storeyed ones too.
    The traditional Gaziantep houses displaying these features are situated mainly in the town center in the Eyüpoğlu Türktepe Tepebaşı Bostancı and Şehreküstü Quarters and also near the Gaziantep Fortress.

    BATHS
    The baths which were always a symbol of cleanliness constituted an essential element of the social life of early times.The ones which have survived to present times are Seyh Fethullah Hamami Huseyin Pasa Hamami Pasa Hamami Keyvanbey Hamami lki Kapili Hamam Naip Hamami Nakipoglu Hamami Tabak Hamami Eski Hamam and Pazar Hamami.

    KASTELS

    The city of Gaziantep had poor water resources. In order to prevent the evaporation or loss of water water was brought to the city through underground canals. In some parts of the canals water was saved by the building of large rooms (or underground reservoirs) which could be reached by long stairways. Of these facilities called "Kastels" only lhsan Bey Pişirici lrnarn Gazali and Kozluca kastels remain.
    COVERED MARKETS (BEDESTEN)
    Bedestens are long bazaars or markets with a covered ceiling. The most important ones are Huseyin Pasa Bedesteni Kemikli Bedesten and Zincirli Bedesten.

    GAZIANTEP CUISINE

    Gaziantep cuisine for many years has held a privileged place among the cuisines of the world and in our country due to its traditional and regional richness of flavour.
    The very special feature of Gaziantep cuisine is in the careful use of the ingredients in the preparation of the meals. All the ingredients are chosen with great care.
    Plentiful quantities of spices tomato pastes and different mixtures give different tastes and flavours to the dishes. For the excellence of the flavor and the taste of Gaziantep meals the skills of the person preparing them are just as important as the quality of the materials.
    The following are the main Gaziantep dishes:
    a) Meatballs (köfteler): içli köfte çig kofte ekşili köfte ufak köfte malhıtalı köfte yoğurtlu ufak köfte.
    b) Kebabs : Kuşbaşı (tike) kebap kıyma kebabı patlıcan kebabı sogan kebabı simit kebabı ciğer kebabı etc.
    c) Other dishes that should be sampled : Yuvarlama and lahmacun.
    d) Desserts : Baklava bülbül yuvası künefe burmalı kadayıf antepfıstığı ezmesi katmer etc.


    EXCURSION AND PICNIC PLACES

    Excursions in the country which are called "Sahra" are held with the families and close relatives when it is very hot in Gaziantep in the spring and in the summer to get away from the noise and the heat of the city and to be in the nature. Country houses are visited. The follows are some of the picnic and excursion areas; Düllükbaba Karpuzatan Kavaklık Dutluk Nafak Burc Forest Burç Lake Buyükşahinbey Town Körkün Picnic Area Rumkale Nizip Karpuzatan Picnic area and Karapınar.

    SOURCES:
    1. RESİMLİ BÜYÜK TÜRKİYE ANSİKLOPEDİSİ
    2. MEGAPOL ŞEHİR GAZİANTEP
    3. MEDENİYETLER MERKEZİ GAZİANTEP​
     
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    Siraç Site Yetkilisi Admin Editör

    ADANA

    Adana is one of the most prominent cities of Ancient Cilicia in the and has been the cradle of many civilizations that have passed between the Hittites and the Ottomans throughout history. It is fourth large region in the Turkish Republic at present in population. It is rumored that the city is derived from Adanus or Adonis the son of greek god of skies according to Greek Myths.

    The city has been built by the Seyhan River that is born in the Taurus mountains travels over the plain meandering in wide circles and flows into the Mediterranean sea. Adana is located at aspot where there is a passage accross the river is easy. The Tepebag tumulus discovered in the Tepebag district that is right in the middle of Adana points to the fact that there were very early settlements in the region and the history of its first inhabitants go back to the Neolithic period in 6000 BC when human beings first began settled life.

    When Adana was the Capital city of the Kizzuwatna Kingdom in the years about 1350 BC it was added to the Hittite Federation and it was consequently taken over by the Assyrians in the 9th century BC then by Iran in the 7 th century BC. During the year 333 BC Adana region was occupied by the armies of Alexander the Great coming under the Macedonian rule after the battle of Isas in the east of Adana. After the death of Alexander the Great the region was invaded by Selevekos Kingdom. In the 1st century BC the region was made a province of Roman Empire the famous orator Cicero was the Governor of Adana Province in that first century. In the following years the region became one of the most prominent trade centers of Eastern Roman Empire.

    In the centuries that followed the region was invaded and occupied by many different nations such as : Sasanis during 260 AC Byzantium in the 5th century AC Abbasis in the 8th century AC re-conquered by Byzantium in the 10th century AC Seljuk Empire in the 11th century AC Armenians in the 12th century AC Memluks in the 14th century AC after which date it remained under the rules of the Turks.
    The Turks that came to the region from the Middle Asia during the reign of Memluks were the pioneers that helped establish a new civilization on these fertile lands with ample water resources. They called Pyramos River Ceyhan and Sarus river as Seyhan.

    The Ramazanogullari Kingdom was founded in the Adana region in 1352 and the reign of this dynasty continued till 1517. At this date Yavuz Sultan Selim on his way to war with Egypt took Adana and made it a part of the Ottoman Empire. The region was later visited by the following Ottoman Sultans : Sultan Suleiman the Law-Maker in 1535 on his military expedition to the East Sultan Murad the 4th on his Baghdad campaign in 1638 İbrahim Pasha the son of the Governor of Egypt who had rebelled against Ottoman rule came to Adana region with his armies in 1833.

    <b>THE TOURISM POTENTIAL OF THE REGION</b>

    Adana with its prominent position as the eighth largest economy of the country the agricultural industrial commercial and cultural center of the Southern Turkey together with its historical monuments warm sunny days and its seacosts has a great deal of attraction for the tourists. Adana has been a suitable place for human settlement ever since the early ages of history. Cukurova is filled with monuments and works of art carrying traces of the civilizations that have lived in the region. Since some of these works of art are far from the beaten track it is rather difficult for tourists to visit them. On the other hand open museums and ruins such as anavarza Yılankale Toprakkale Ayas Karatepe have regular roads connecting them to the mainstream.

    The attarctions of the region are not only the ruins castles ancient tumulus sites and the remains of important cities. The Taurus Mountains that surround the Cukurova like a wall have great potential with their natural beauty with their suitibility for winter sports and hunting. The fact that the region is in a location where two contrasting climates meet is another factor that can enhance the attractions of the area. During the summer months people who want to escape the high temperatures can either go up to the cooler plains in the Taurus Mountains or go to the seashore for a swim at the Karatas and Yumurtalik coast.

    Adana region has the advantage of being close to the many archeological sites on the Mediterranean coastline. The sea long coastline between Antalya and İskenderun is rich with archeological sites ancient monuments beautiful seashores sandy beaches and sunny climate. Tourists who wish to visit Hatay Nigde Nevsehir Urgup Goreme ( Cappadocia) stay overnight at adana on their way to these cities. There are quite a few hotels in yumurtalik Karatas and Tuzla districts of the region and these facilities will add to the tourism potential of the region.

    Adana is situated at the crossroads of airways highways and railway connecting the countries of the Middle East with Turkey and because of this factor the region has dense transit touristic traffic.

    <b>NATURAL BEAUTY</b>

    Adana is one of the most attaractive cities in Southern Turkey with its natural beauty its avenues lined up with palm eucalyptus and mimosa trees summer tea gardens and parks and has a high potential for domestic and foreign tourism. The Seyhan Dam lake and vicinity and the Saricam woods are two areas of natural beauty that the inhabitants prefer for picnics on holidays. Because that the summers are very hot usually some of the inhabitants move up to the slopes and plains in the Taurus Mountains.

    Some of the spots of natural beauty visited by the inhabitants of Adana are :

    KAPIZ: It is an area of great natural beauty about 35 km from the city center and at 13 km west of Karaisalı. Surrounded by the pine forests and the wonderful view of summits of the mountains it is incomparable. The Cakit spring that flows down from the Taurus Mountains is an added bonus.

    KARSANTI AND ENVIRONMENT :There are many spots of natural beauty on the road between Adana and Karaisalı. Among them Eyner Village attracts the interes of many people. One can see many wild animals while travelling on this road. During the summer months the camping sites in the area attract the families and during the hunting season the hunters. Karsanti with its cool climate and fresh air is the ideal place for vacations in the summer. In the small streams that are the branches of Seyhan extensive trout fishing is done. The famous Post forests are also in this district.

    KOZAN-SAİMBEYLİ: The road between Kozan-Feke-Saimbeyli which is in the North-South direction goes through thick forest land. On this road there are many recreational areas and drinkable water fountains where people stop over for a rest and drink. The Dagilcak excursion spot near Kozan is also on this road.

    YERKÖPRÜ : This is a very beautiful site about 12 km from Karaisali that has been built beside the exact spot where the Cakit Spring goes underground and then emerges forming a waterfall. It is a unique recreational area.

    BURUCEK AND TEKİR PLAINS :These high plains are at 100 km distance from the city center. There are camping areas in these plains that are ssurrounded by forests and they are suitable for camping tourism. Burucek Plain has extraordinary scenery during the winter also. Besides these there are recreational areas and camping facilities within the forests in the Karatas Saricam Kozan-Dagilcak Feke Karacaoglan and Saimbeyli-Obruk districts in the Adana region.

    <b>MUSEUMS IN ADANA</b>

    REGIONAL MUSEUM OF ARCHEOLOGY : The Archeological Museum has been built in 1924 on the e-5 Auto-Route at central Adana. In this museum all archeological finds from Adana Cukurova and Anthic Cilicia are exhibited. Besides the historical remains from Cukurova excavations at Kahraman Maras Gaziantep Mersin Yumuktepe Tarsus Gozlukule and Misis are also evaluated here and exhibited in this museum that is why it is truly regional museum. The Museum has moved to its present building in the year 1972.

    ETHNOGRAPHIC MUSEUM : This museum is located at the Kurukopru district of central Adana in a church that was built in 1845 and later abandoned. Its first location was the Mosque of Cafer Pasha and its Monastery and when these buildings collapsedthe church was restored and turned into a museum. Ethnographic works of art belonging to the turcoman clans that live in the Cukurova district and stone edifices of Islamic origin are exhibited in this museum.

    ADANA ATATURK MUSEUM : It is located in the historical Tepebag the old city center of adana in one of the traditional Adana houses built in the 19th century. It is a two-story house made of local stone with typical ornamentalbalconies and slanting roof. Because of its characteristic it has been taken under the “Cultural Unmovable Entity Worthy of Protection” program by the Ministry of Culture. In this house that belonged to Suphi Pasha coming from the Ramazanogullari family mustafa Kemal Atatürk the founder of the Turkish Trepublic and his wife Lady Latife have stayed overnight on March 15th 1923. the building later has been made public property by the Atatürk Science and Culture Museum Club with the invaluable aid of Army Commander of that time Bedrettin Demirel. It was then restored with the assistance of the general public and opened to visitors in the year 1981.

    ULU CAMI : This mosque had been built in 1507 by Halil Bey during the reign of Ramazanogullari Kingdom. It has been enlarged in 1541 with the construction of an additional building. The tomb of Halil bey is in the Ulu Cami. The mosque has been built of cut stone; there is a monumental portal ornamented with a series of arabic caligraphy and niches designed as seashells. Its octagon shaped minaret is amvery interesting characteristic of the period.

    <b>IMPORTANT HISTORICAL MONUMENTS IN ADANA</b>

    TASKOPRU (STONE BRIDGE) : There are various opinions on the date of construction of this stone bridge that is a Roman masterpiece built over the Seyhan river. According to the Gerekce inscriptions in the Adana Museum this bridge has been constructed by the architect named Auxenthus in the 4th century BC. The 1500 year old stone bridge has 21 arches but because 7 of these arches have been buried under the earth during the reclamation of the Seyhan river you can only see the 14 remaining arches. There is a twin of this bridge in Rome.

    RAMAZOGULLARI THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL: The Ramazanogullari Medrese built in the year 1540 has the typical architecture plan of Ottoman Theological Schools. There is a large archway in the entrance a courtyard in the middle and the alcoves and cells.

    RAMAZANOGULLARI MANSION : this stately mansion has been built by Halil bey in the year 1495. The men’s quarters from where the government affairs were conducted and the harem where family and the women lived are still intact. There is also an ornamnetal pool in the terrace at the top floor.

    BUYUKSAAT KULESI : (The big Clock Tower) : The Clock Tower is on the Ali Munif Yegenaga Avenue in adana. The construction of the tower has begun in the times of Governer Ziya Pasha in 1881 but with his death the building has been completed by the new Governor Abidin Pasha in 1882. The tower that is 32 meters high is made of cut stone blocks.

    OLD ADANA DISTRICT AND HOUSES : The oldest districts in the city of Adana with their present day names are ; Sariyakup Alidede Tepebag and Turkocagi districts. There are Yag Mosque (1501) Hasanaga Mosque (1558) and Alidede Mosque (1704) on the east side of these districts. On the west side there is the ırmak Public bath (1600) and Alemdar Mosque (1748) on the north there is the Agca Prayer Room (1409) Kemeralti Mosque (1915) Yesil Prayer Room (1753) and Taskopru (Stone Bridge) Old Adana houses have mostly collapsed but about 169 old houses are inhabited at present. These houses have the characteristic of both the old Turkish and Mediterranean house in fact they are a synthesis of both styles. The eaves of the houses are wide with bow windows and small balconies in the front the windows are rectangular with wooden shutters and they have arched doorways.
    YAG (OLD) MOSQUE : This was an old Church known as the Saint Jacques left from the times of the Crusades. It was converted into a mosque by Ramazanoglu Halil Bey in 1501 by some additions to its structure. The mosque has a simple structure its portals are monumental like the Crown Doorway with low arches and ornamented with Arabic caligraphy.

    HASANAGA MOSQUE : It is situated in the Alidede district behind the Yag mosque. It has been built in the year 1558. The plans for this mosque are said to be made by the famous architect Mimar Sinan. It is built of cut stone and it has a dome. The entrance door is wood ornamneted with beautiful designs and the prayer vault is designed with black and white marble. It is really worth seeing.

    BEBEKLI KILISE ( BEBEKLI CHURCH) : ıt has been built during the years 1880-1890 and its real name is Saint Paul. At the top of this church there is a 2.5 meter high bronze statute of Mother Mary. Religious ceremony is held at this church every day between 18.00-19.00 hours and this is another example of the respect shown by the Turkish nation towards Christianity and other beliefs.

    MISIS (MOPSUHESTIA) REMAINS : Misis that is on the historical silk road beside the Ceyhan River (Pyramos) is the second passageway built after Adana. The history of Misis begins with the Tumulus on which it is located probably the Neolithic period of 6000 BC. It is rumored that the town of Misis was built by Mopsus one of the heroes of the Trojan Wars. In later periods it has been conquered by Hittitites Assyrians Macedonians and Selevkos and it has been an important center during the Roman and Byzantian rule. After the 8th centurt AC it has been re-constructed and people have settled there. It has been the scene of many battles. After 1517 it was taken over the Ottoman Empire. The remaining monuments and works of art are : Mosaics from 4th century AC Stone Bridge with 9 arches the walls and the remains of a town in the Acropol the Havraniye Caravanserai built in 1542 and the cubic style prayer house with the single dome built in 1648.

    MOSAICS MUSEUM: Cukurova is also famous for the mosaics left from the early roman period that have great artistic value. In Misi there is a mosaic scenery depicting Noah and the animals in his Ark in the floor of the Roman Basilica built in the 4th century AC. These mosaics have been converted into an open-air museum. There are other mosaics in Imamoglu-Koyunevi Kozan-Ferhatli and the anavarza mosaics of Thetis that are not yet open to visits.

    YILANKALE (SNAKE CASTLE) : This is one of the castles built by the Crusaders in the Middle Ages during the 11th century on the road to Antakya ( Antiochia). This road that goes over the Taurus Mountains was very important during the Ottoman period as well as in the period of antiquity. The Snake Castle has been located in a high viewpoint so that other castles in the plain could be observed. The Castle has 8 round towers and a main entrance door on the South. From the entrance stone steps go up to the terraces the garrison of the castle is at the very top. There is a church and a cistern within the castle grounds. The old name of the castle was Govara but Evliya Celebi (Famous Ottoman Wanderer)who visited the area in 1671 calls it the Sahmeran Castle describing the snakes that lived there as animals with horns and hairy necks. This is where the folk story of Sahmeran (half snake-half human) got its origins.

    TOPRAKKALE : It is believed that the castle was built in the 4th century BC by the selefkos Kings. The Castle was repaired and re-built in 786 by Harun Rashid with black stones. It has been used a a garrison for a while during the ottoman rule. The Toprakkale has a rectangular design plan and there are 12 towers in the castle. It is a great pleasure to watch the plains and the sunset from the towers of this castle.

    ANAVARZA RUINS : The date when the antique city of anavarza was first built is not known but it is known that it has become the capital city of Cilicia in the year 408 BC. Starting with the 8th century AC it has changed hands many times and for a while it has served as the capital city of armenian Princedom. There is the Anavarza Castle built over a hill rising from one side of the old town is the central castle among others in the plain. Of the remains in the site the walls vault of victory the columns the old road and the pools ornamneted with mosaics are some art works that attract the interest of visitors.

    YUMURTALIK7AYAS (Aegeae) RUINS : yumurtalik is one of the two most beautiful seaside towns of Adana. The date when the ayas/Aegeae town was first built is not definitely known. During the Hellenistic Period the seaside town was famous for its Temple of Asclepion like Bergamon boasting of having one of the three such Temples in the world. Ayas that continued to develop during the Roman Period became one of the most important seaports in eastern Mediterranean in the Middle Ages. Merchants from Venice an genoa formed colonies around the Ayas harbor. The famous traveler Marco Polo on his way to China has disembarked at this seaport in 1268 having come so far by boat and on his return trip on land he again reached ayas and got on board his ship from here.

    Yumurtalik was taken over by the Turkish Memluk Kingdom in 1337 and later become one of the prominent towns and seaports of the Ramazanogullari Princedom. The works of art that were found in the ancient Aegeae town near Yumurtalik has been assembled in front of the town Public Administration Office and thus an open-air museum has been established. Yumurtalik town is an unexplored treasure of historical monuments and arts with the additional monuments of Ayas and Atlas Castles (11th century AC) the three-storey Observation Tower constructed in the reign of the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Law-Maker in 1536 the city walls the Ottoman and Roman Baths.

    KARATAS-MAGARSUS RUINS : Magarsus ruins are situated in the Dortdirekli district of Karatas ehich is a seaside town of Adana. The Temples of Magarsus especially the Temple where Alexander the Great is rumored to have prayed were very famous during the age of Antiquity. Unfortunately nothing much has been left intact in the Magarsus Ruins; there are some city walls lining up the seashore some architectual edifices and remains of the amphitheatre and city stadium that attract the interest of visitors.

    TUFANBEYLİ / SAR (KOMANA) RUINS : These ruins are located at Sarkoy a village that is at a distance of 210 km to Adana in the Taurus Mountains. The Sar then known by the name of komana was an important religious center during the times of the Hittitites. In the Sar Ruins that is on the historical road to Kayseri-Malatya the ruins that have survived belong to the Roman Period. The Church door known as the Ala Kapi the Kirik Church and antique remains of architectual works and its theatre are worth visiting.

    CEYHAN / SIRKELİ MUVATTALI RELİEF : This relief has been cut onto a piece of massive rock beside the Ceyhan River near the village of Sirkeli on the old road between Misis-Ceyhan. There has been extensive excavation work done in the Sirkeli Tumulus near this rock. The first excavations in the area were conducted by the archeologist Professor dr. Garstrang from USA in the year 1938 and the excavations have been resumed after the year 1992. This area was considered sacred by the Hittitites because the Hittitite Emperor Mutavalli visited rthis place on his way to the famous Kadesh Battle with the Pharoh Ramses of Egypt. The Mutavalli relief created to commentorate this occasion is the oldest Hittitite relief in Anatolia.

    ALADAG / AKOREN RUINS : The ruins in the Akoren village of the Aladag town situated on the Taurus Mountains is anewly discovered ruin. In this area that consisted of two seperate districts 4 churches remains of ancient buildings and streets have been found during the recent research in the area. When the inscriptions that were found were examined it was understood that this wa a town used as a cool summer resort since the ancient Roman times.

    KOZAN (SIS) CASTLE : This castle is located in the Kozan town center. It had been built by the assyrians. The castle was later repaired and restored and used by the Romans and Armenians. The circumference of the castle is about 6 kilometers and it has four towers. In the lower parts of the castle there are rooms reached by steep steps where food and ammunition was stored. There are inscriptions written on the castle walls in the assyrian Persian Roman and Armenian languages. Sis Castle is one of the most impressive monuments situated in urban centers in Adana.

    <b>POSSIBILITIES FOR ALTERNATIVE TOURISM</b>

    Cave and Canyon Tourism : The Bigbigi Cave in Aladağ with its many spots of great natural beauty is suitable for cave tourism. The valley formed by Göksu River in Feke is suitable for Canyon Tourism.

    Trekking : There is quite a number of trekking routes in the Taurus mountains but the most important route that is ready for trekking is the route that begins from Pozanti/Hamidiye and ends at Egni springs.

    Religious Tourism : The areas suitable for religious tourism in the region are: Bebekli Church at Adana city center Kale Church in Saimbeyli ancient church and remains of the town in Sar Akören Church in Aladağ

    Hunting Tourism : Good areas for both mountain climbing and hunting sports are the forest and hils of the Taurus Mountains that surround the north and east of Adana region.

    Business Congress and Conference Tourism : Adana region and its city center is very convinient for business seminars conferences and Congress meetings with the Baghdad railway TEM international highway its international airport its two harbours pipe line prestigious university.

    Lake and Water Sports : Another potential area of tourism in our region is lake and water sports that can be organized in the lakes of its various dams. Lakes such as Seyhan Dam Lake Aslantaş Çatalan Yedigöz dams are already in condition suitable for utilization in the fiealds of recration and water sports. Construction work on creating parks and green areas for public use are well under way on the shores of Seyhan River where it passes through the city of Adana. Besides this work on the construction of the largest artificial lake in Turkey for recretional purposes in continuing.

    Winter Sprots Tourism : Kızıldağ plains in Karaisalı and Karafil Mountains in Pozantı are very suitable for camping and winter sports such as skiing.

    Sea and Yacht Tourism : The seaside towns of our region such as Yumurtalık and Karataş provide unlimited opportunities for sea and yacht tourism. These two seaside towns have great potential with their high quality beaches and sunny climate. When the existing fisherman’s shelters are converted into marinas for yachts the area will acquire a new function and image. With the conversion of the two buildings near the shelters to centers suitable for services to the yacht men these two towns will become an important meeting point for the yacht owners in Eastern Mediterranean.

    Eco Tourism : The ecology of our region is rich and varied. About 40% of the Mediterranean coastline in our region consists of sand dunes marshland and areas covered by reed. The coast between the borders of İçel and Hatay regions that belong to the Adana region is 118 kilometers long; about 47 kilometers of this coastline has the above mentioned natural structure. Some of the most important of these areas that carry great ecological value are; Tuzla and Akyatan lakes formed by the Seyhan River and the Akyayan lake formed by the Ceyhan River and the Yumurtalık natural fishing enclosure in these areas rare species of birds sea and land animals find shelter and reproduce themselves. ​
     
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    ANKARA

    The city of Ankara lies in the city center of Anatolian the eastern edge of the greathigh Anatolian Plateauat an altitude of 850 meters.The province is a predominantly fertile wheat steppelandwith forested areas in the northeast.It is bordered by the provinces of Cankırı and Bolu to the northEskisehir to the westKonya and Aksaray to the south and Kırıkkale and Kırsehir to the east
    The region’s history goes back to the Bronze Age Hatti civilizationwhich was succeeded in the 2nd millennium B.C. by the Hittitesin the 10th century B.C. by the phrygiansthen by the Lydians and persians.After these came the Galatiansa Celtic race who were the fisrt to make Ankara their capital in the 3rd century B.C. It was then known as Ancyrameaning “anchor” one of the oldest words in the language of the sea-loving Celts.The city subsequently fell to the Romansand to the Byzantines. Seljuk Sultan Alparslan opened the door into Anatolia for the Turks at the victory of Malazgirt in 1071. Then in 1073he annexed Ankaraan important location for military transportation and naturel resourcesto Turkish territory.
    The city was an important culturaltrading and arts center in Roman times and an important trading center on the caravan route to the east in Ottoman times.It had declined in importance by the nineteenth century.It again became an important center when Kemal Atatürk chose it as the base from which to direct the War of Liberation.By consequence of its role in the war and its strategic positionit was declared the capital of the new Republic of Turkey on october 13th1923.

    SITES TO SEE

    Anıtkabir(Atatürk Mausoleum)
    Located on an imposing hill in the Anıttepe quarter of the city stands the mausoleum of Kemal Atatürkfounder of the Republic of Turkey.completed in 1953it is an impressive fusion of ancient and modern architectural ideas and remains unsurpassed as an accomplishment of modern Turkish architecture. There is a museum housing a superior wax statue of Atatürk; writings letters and items belonging to Atatürkas well as an exhibition of photographs recording important moments in his life and in the establishment of the Republic.

    MUSEUMS

    The museum of Anatolian Civilizations
    It is close to the citadel entrance.An old bedesten(covered bazaar)has been beautifully restored and now houses a marvelous and unique collection of PaleolithicNeolithicHatti HittitePhrygianUrartian and Roman works and showpiece Lydian treasures.

    The Ethnography Museum
    It is opposite the Opera House on Talat Paşa Boulevard.There is a fine collection of folkloric artifacts as well as artifacts from Seljuk and Ottoman mosques.


    The Painting and Sculpture Museum
    It is close to the Ethnography Museum and houses a rich
    collection of Turkish art from the late 19th century to the
    present day.There are also galleries for guest exhibitions.



    The Liberation War Museumdiagonally across the street from Ulus Squareis in what was originally the first parliement building of the Republic of Turkey. There the War of Liberation was planned and directed as recorded in various photographs and items on exhibition. In another display are wax figures of former presidents of the Republic of Turkey.

    The Museum of the Republicclose to the Liberation War Museumis housed in what was the second parliement building of the Republic. The exhibition here records important events

    Atatürk’s House is on the grounds of the Presidential Palace in Cankaya and was Atatürk’s House after the founding of the republic. The house is much as it was in Atatürk’s dayand exhibits photogrphs that record important events.

    PTT Museum collections were begun between 1880 and 1888 by then Postal Director Izzet Efendi. The Museum in Altındag was opened in 1982and contains a postal displaya telegraph and telephone displayand a stamp display.

    The TRT Museum has exhibits from the beginning of radio in Turkeyincluding antique phonographs and radios. It is located in the TRT General Directorate building in the Oran discrict.

    Mehmet Akif Ersoy Museumon the Hacettepe University Central Campuscommemorates the famous national poet whoin this housewrote the text of the Turkish national anthemas well as songs of independenceand many poems.

    The Meteorology Museum on Sanatoryum Ave.In Kalabashows the history of meteorology in Turkey.

    The Education Museum follows the history and tecnology of education in Turkey. It is located in Ankara Gazi Universityin the Besevler district

    HISTORICAL MONUMENTS

    Ankara Citadel:The foundations of the citadel were laid by the Galations on a prominent lava outcropand completed by the Romans. The Byzantines and Seljuks made restorations and additions. The area around and inside the citadelbeing the oldest part of Ankaracontains many fine examples of traditional architecture. There are also lovely green areas in which to relax. It is well known that the Ankara region was the cradle of wine in Hatti and Hittite times around 2000 B.C. Many restored traditional Turkish houses in the area of the citadel have found new life as restaurantsserving local and international dishes and wine.

    Roman Theatre:The remainsincluding pro-scene(stage) and scene(back stage) can be seen outside the citadel. Roman statues that were found here are exhibited in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. The audience area is still under excavation.

    Temple of Augustus:The temple is in the Ulus quarter of the city. Itwas built by the Galatian King Pylamenes in 10 A.D. as a tribute to Augustusand was reconstructed by the Romans on the ancient Ankara Acropolis in the 2nd century. It is important today for the “Monument Ancyranum” the sole surviving “Political Testament” of Augustusdetailing his achievementsinscribed on its walls in Latin and Greek. In the fifth century the temple was converted into a church by the Byzantines.

    Roman Bath:The bathsituated on Cankırı Avenue in Ulushas all the typical features: a frigidarium(cold room) tepidarium(cool room)and caldarium(hot room). They were built in the time of Emperor Caracalla(3rd century A.D.) in honur of Asclepiosthe god of medicine. Today only the basement and first floors remain.

    Column of Julian: This column in Ulus was erected in 362 A.D.probably to commemorate a visit by the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate. It stands fifteen meters high and has a typical leaf decoration on the capital.

    Monument of the Republic: Erected in 1927 in Ulus Squareit is a symbol of the struggle for independence on the part of Atatürk and the Turkish people in the War of Liberation.

    Victory Monument: Erected in 1927 in Zafer Square in the Sıhhıye quartershows Atatürk in uniform

    MOSQUES

    Hacı Bayram Mosque: This mosque in Ulus next to the temple of Augustuswas built in the early 15th century in Seljuk style and was subsequently restored by Sinan in the 16th century with Kutahya tiles being added in the 18th century. The mosque was built in honor of Hacı Bayram Veliwhose tomb is next to the mosque.

    Alaaddin Mosque:This mosque is inside the Citadel walls. It has a carved walnut mimberthe inscription on which shows that the mosque was built in the 12th century by the Seljuk rulerMesut.

    Kocatepe Mosque:This is a recently constructed mosque of great size in classical Ottoman design with four minarets. Built between 1967 and 1987 in the Kocatepe quarterits size and prominent situation have made it a landmark.




    PARKS
    Ankara has many delightful parks and open spaces established in the early years of the republic in accordance with Atatürk’s belief in the importance of trees and natural beauty. The most important of these parks are: Genclik parkıthe Botanical GardenKuguluGüven Abdi IpekciAnıtAltın Park.


    ARTS AND CULTURE
    Ankara is a center for operaballetjazz and modern dance as well as home of the prestigious Presidential Symphony Orchestra. Ankara also has a large number of theatres staging many ambitious productions. In addition to public and private galleries throughout the city exhibitions are also held at the Atatürk Cultural Center. The city also has many cinemas showing the best Turkish and foreign films and there a number of film festivals on various themes throughout the year in particular the International Film Days in March. Every year in April and May the city hosts the Sevda Cenap And International Arts and Music Festival with performances by the finest Turkish and foreign musicians. The Children’s Festival on April 23 is also quite an invent with groups of children from all over the world taking part. There is also an International Cartoon Film Festival in summer.


    SHOPPING

    Visitors to the city usually like to visit tke old shops in Cıkrıkcılar Yokusu near Ulus. The street of copper workers is particularly popular and many interesting old and new itemsnot just of copper can be found heresuch as jewelrycarpetscostumesantiques and embroidery. Walking up the hill to the citadel gate you find many interesting shops selling spices dried fruitsnuts and all manner of produce; the selection is huge and very fresh. Modern shopping areas are mostly found in Kızılay on Tunalı Hilmi Avenue including the modern mall of Karum and in the Atakule Tower in Cankaya. From the top of Atakule(125 meters) there is a magnificent view over the whole city.
     
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    BURSA TURKEY
    Known as "Green Bursa" this province stands on the lower slopes of Uludag (Mount Olympos of Mysia 2543 m). The title "Green" of Bursa comes from its gardens and parks and of course from its being in the middle of an important fruit growing region. In Bursa there are things you should not miss. First of all you are in the homeland of the delicious "Iskender Kebap". The candied chestnuts are a specialty and have an unforgettable taste. The peaches of Bursa are unique. As for something to purchase; Bursa is a center of the silk trade and towel manufacturing. It is also the homeland of the very famous Turkish folklore figures Karagoz and Hacivat.
    Because of its being the first Ottoman capital Bursa is very rich in religious monuments mosques and tombs (turbes) baths. One of the places to be seen in Bursa is the Yesil Mosque (Green Mosque) with its carved marble doorway which is one of the best in Anatolia. It is an elaborate and significant building in the new Turkish style. Just opposite is the Yesil Tomb "Green Tomb" set in a green garden with an enchanting exterior decorated with turquoise tiles. Near the tomb the Medresse complements the others and makes this the "green" trio now it houses the Ethnographical Museum which certainly deserves visiting. The Yildirim Beyazit Mosque is important as it is the first one built in the new Ottoman style and is accompanied by the Emir Sultan Mosque which lies in a peaceful setting. The province is decorated with these monuments-each of which is a masterpiece. Here are the Ulu Mosque built in the Seljuk style with impressive calligraphic wall decorations; the Orhan Gazi Mosque; the "Hisar" an attractive part of the province and in the park the Mausoleums of Osman the founder of the Ottoman Empire and his son Orhan Gazi. The Muradiye Complex has a delightful view with its mosque and tombs of important characters from the Ottoman era and their tiles and charming decorations appeal to the sightseers. The Ottoman Museum offers a lively exhibit of the traditional life style of Ottomans.
    Something you will enjoy in Bursa are the warm mineral-rich springs; indeed most of the hotels in this province have thermal bath facilities. The Turkish baths "hamam" are great places which should be visited in Bursa. The Eski Kaplica (Old Spring) is the oldest in the province. The Karamustafa Pasha Baths are famous and boast the best hot mineral waters.
    As for souvenirs you should visit the Covered Bazaar "Bedesten" or the Koza Han-an attractive building and also a center of silk trade. It is certain that Bursa will take some of time for you to see and add some more delightful experiences to your memories.
    Environs:
    Uludag is the largest and most celebrated winter-sports center in Turkey. It is 36 kms from Bursa and easily accessible by car or cable-car (teleferik). The area is also a national park and is worth a visit at any time of the year. The accommodation is high quality offering the opportunity to enjoy with a variety of entertainment and sports activities.
    Mudanya is a seaside resort town from fine fish restaurants and night-clubs there so you can have a pleasant
    Zeytinbagi (Trilye) is a town of typical Turkish architecture and lay out. There are sea bus and ferry connections with Istanbul.
    Gemlik (27 km north) is another seaside resort with a wide sandy beach.
    Iznik (Nicaea) lies 85 kms northeast of Bursa at the eastern tip of Lake knik. The town has witnessed many civilizations which have left their marks all over the land. This town is famous for its unique tiles and has been the center of tile production in the 16th century. Iznik tiles were the basic decorative element of Seljuk and Ottoman architecture. The turquoise-tiled Yesil Mosque and Nilufer Hatun imareti are among the Islamic works in the town. ​
     
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