Animal Farm - Russell Baker - İngilizce Kitap Özeti

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    Character Summary

    Mr Jones
    The cruel farmer who holds the animals of the farm in slavery.

    Old Major
    An old and venerable pig on the farm. He is the animal who inspires everyone else to dream of being freed from slavery under the humans.

    A pig, he is one of the leaders of the rebellion. Snowball is highly intelligent and persuasive, a brilliant orator, and is always dreaming ways and means of improving life on the farm.

    A pig, along with Snowball the other main leader of the rebellion. He is more adept than Snowball at building alliances among the other animals. He is also more politically asture than his rival.

    A pig. Like Snowball, a brilliant and persuasive orator, but unlike Snowball, much less inclined to take the lead with his own ideas.

    A carthorse. Enormously strong, most of the ambitious building projects undertaken on Animal Farm depend on his physical strength and his unquestioning dedication to the rebellion. Dull-witted, he is easily manipulated by the more intelligent animals.

    Another carthorse. Unquestioningly loyal to the rebellion, though even she has doubts at times.

    A goat, one of the more intelligent animals on the farm outside of the pigs. She is a great friend of Clover.

    A donkey. Stubborn and reserved, he is one of the very few animals on the farm who does not actively support the rebellion, though he does not condemn it either. A cynic. He is devoted to Boxer.

    A raven. He seduces many of the animals on the farm with tales of SugarCandy mountain, a mythical place in the clouds where animals go after they die.

    Chapter 1
    After the drunken farmer Jones has gone to bed, all the animals of the farm assemble for a meeting. The meeting has been called by Old Major, a boar who is the oldest and wisest animal on the farm. The pigs, cows, horses, ducks, hens and dogs all assemble in the big barn, thinking that they are going to be told about a dream that Old Major had the previous night.

    When they have all settled down, Old Major addresses them. Before telling them about his dream, he says that, as he is coming to the end of his own life, and he wants to share his wisdom with the other animals. He reminds them about all the work that they have to do for their human masters, how little they are given to eat, how they own nothing but their bare skin. He describes how the humans steal everything produced by the animals, with the animals receiving in return only enough food to keep them alive. He tells them that their children are taken from them almost as soon as they are born, and that when they come to the end of their useful lives, they will be cruelly slaughtered.

    He goes on to tell them that all the animals are comrades, they are brothers, and that their only real enemy is humans. Man is the root cause of all their troubles, he tells them. He urges the animals to fight the humans at every turn, and tells them that rebellion is the only possible solution to their situation. In the middle of the speech, a few wild rats enter the barn, and the dogs chase them. Old Major calls a vote on whether or not the rats should be considered to be comrades. A large majority agrees that the rats are comrades, the only animals to vote against are the dogs and the cat, who, we are told, “was afterwards discovered to have voted on both sides.” Old Major then concludes his speech by advising them on how they should conduct themselves. They must recognise that whatever goes on four legs or wings is a friend. They must on no account ever come to resemble man, and must never live in a house. He tells them finally “All animals are equal.”

    Old Major finally gets around to telling them about his dream, but the first thing he tells them is that he cannot describe the dream, except to say that it reminded him of a song that he learned in his youth called “Beasts of England.” He sings the song, which tells of the day when Man is finally overthrown, when there is no more slavery or cruelty, and when the animals are finally free. The animals in the barn respond rapturously to this, and sang it through together five times in succession, until they are interrupted by a blast from the farmer’s shotgun. The farm quickly returns to normality.

    Chapter 2
    Old Major dies three days later. The animals set out to prepare for the rebellion. The pigs, being the most intelligent animals on the farm, take the lead on this. The task of working Old Major’s ideas into a more formal system falls to three pigs, Napoleon, Snowball and Squealer. These three organise regular nighttime meetings with the other animals to explain the principles of their system, called Animalism. They encounter many obstacles from amongst the simpler animals, who are afraid of what might happen if Jones was not around to feed them. Also, Moses the Raven is always telling the animals about an animal’s paradise called Sugarcandy Mountain, where the animals go when they die. Many of the animals believe in Sugarcandy Mountain, and the pigs have to keep on persuading them that no such place exists.

    Without any planning, the rebellion happens on Midsummer’s day, just before harvest. Farmer Jones gets hopelessly drunk the night before, and neglects to milk the cows or feed the animals all day. One of the cows breaks down a door to the store-shed, and several opf the animals begin to help themselves from the bins. Jones now awakes and seeing this, he and his four farm hands begin whipping the animals out of the store-shed. The animals attack the humans spontaneously and furiously. They shocked men react by almost immediately running down the laneway and fleeing the farm. The farm now belongs to the animals.

    The animals are ecstatic. They light a great bonfire and burn every farm implement they can lay their hands on, including knives, nose-rings and whips. Napoleon serves double-rations of food to every animal, they gather to sing Beasts of England, and they go to sleep. The next morning they carry out a more detailed inspection of the farm, stopping warily outside the farmhouse. After doing a brief and cautious tour of the farmhouse, they leave, vowing that no animal should ever live there, and to preserve the farmhouse as a museum.

    Snowball and Napoleon now call the animals together, and surprise them by announcing that they have spent the last few months learning to write. Next they go to the main gate of the farm and paint over “Manor Farm”, replacing it with “Animal Farm”. Returning to the farm buildings, they paint the seven commands of Animalism onto the gable of the big barn;

    1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.

    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.

    3. No animal shall wear clothes.

    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.

    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.

    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.

    With this done, the animals set out to begin the harvest. But as they do so, the cows remind them that they have not been milked for twenty-four hours. The pigs get some buckets and do the milking themselves, producing five buckets of delicious-looking milk. Some of the animals ask what is to be done with the milk, but Napoleon tells them not to worry about it, and that they should concentrate on the harvest instead. When they return in the evening, the milk has disappeared.

    Chapter 3
    The harvest is a great success. It is finished two days earlier than Jones and his men used to manage. The animals are so enthusiastic and excited about the fact that the food is truly their own, that no food is stolen during the harvesting. Almost all the animals have worked as hard as they possibly could, but there are some exceptions. Mollie, the vain mare, often leaves the fields early complaining about a stone in her hoof, and the cat seems to appear only for meals. Benjamin the donkey is one of the few animals who is completely unchanged by the revolution, remaining as aloof and cynical as he had been before.
    Sunday is a rest day, when the animals assemble at a great Meeting. This is where the work for the coming week is to be planned, and various motions discussed. All of the resolutions are put forward by the pigs. The other animals are aware of this, but as they cannot think of any resolutions themselves, they allow the pigs to lead. As the weeks go by, it becomes clear that Napoleon and Snowball rarely agree about anything. Snowball puts all his energies into forming various committees, each of which is responsible for improving some or other aspect of life on the farm. Napoleon sees no value in this, and prefers to concentrate on educating the young. For example, when two of the dogs have litters, Napoleon takes the puppies away from their mothers and secludes them in an inaccessible part of the farm, so that he can educate them properly in the principles of Animalism.
    Not all of Snowball’s committees work very well, but his reading and writing classes are hugely successful. The pigs can read and write perfectly. The dogs learn to read, but will not read anything except the seven commandments. Boxer the great carthorse tries very hard to learn the alphabet, but cannot get past D. Many of the other animals can understand only one letter. Because so many animals are thus unable to read the seven commandments, Snowball reduces the seven commandments to the single maxim “Four legs good, two legs bad!”, which they can remember more easily.
    It is soon learned that the pigs took the milk that disappeared on the first day, and are now mixing it into their mash. The pigs now issue a decree stating that all windfall apples are to be gathered up and given over for the exclusive use of the pigs. Some of the animals are puzzled by this, and wonder why the apples are not to be shared out equally. Squealer goes before them to explain. He tells them that the pigs, as the leaders, must keep their brainpower up, and that science has proven that milk and apples are essential for this. Squealer goes on to remind them that the alternative to the pigs is to have Farmer Jones back. This settles the animals, who agree that, whatever happens, they never want to live under Jones again.

    Chapter 4
    Snowball and Napoleon are sending pigeons to neighbouring farms and beyond, to tell the animals about the rebellion. News of the rebellion has spread to the surrounding county. The farmers at first pretend not to be troubled about the rebellion, believing that the animals cannot possibly make a success of the farm. But as time passes the farmers become more and more troubled, and their animals become more and more emboldened. The tune of Beasts of England is now known by nearly every animal in the county. The farmers try to spread lies about torture and slavery on Animal Farm, but the animals of the county do not believe them. They whistle the tune and sing the words of Beasts of England, though they risk terrible beatings by doing so. More and more stories are heard of individual animals disobeying and in some cases attacking their human masters.
    One day in October, Jones, all his men, and half a dozen others from the neighbouring farms, attack Animal Farm. They walk up the laneway through the main gate. They are all armed with sticks except for Jones, who carries a gun. The animals, however, are well prepared. After an initial skirmish where the pigeons and geese attack the humans, Snowball attacks them, supported by Benjamin, Muriel and all the sheep. The men repulse this attack with their sticks, and Snowball sounds the retreat. They fall back to the farmyard, pursued by the men, who think that they have triumphed. However, they have walked into a trap.
    As soon as the men are in the farmyard, a number of the larger animals emerge from the shed behind them, and cut off their retreat. Snowball’s group now attacks again. Snowball charges at Jones. Jones fires a shot at Snowball and wounds him, but this is not enough to prevent Snowball from crashing into him and sending him tumbling to the ground, the gun flying out of his hand in the process, Now Boxer joins the attack, rearing up on his hind legs and striking viciously with his hoofed forelegs. Boxer strikes one of the men on the skull, apparently killing him. At the sight of this, the other men run for their lives, back down the laneway and out the gate. The invasion is over.
    In the post-battle excitement, Boxer is extremely remorseful for killing the man, while the animals suddenly realise that Mollie is missing. They search the farm, and find her hiding in a corner. She fled the battle as soon as the gun went off. They return to the farmyard to find that the man was only stunned, and has since recovered and escaped.
    The animals celebrate their victory. The flag is raised, Beasts of England is sung. A medal for “Animal Hero, First Class” is created and awarded to Snowball. A medal for “Animal Hero, Second Class” is created, and awarded to a sheep that died when Jones fired his gun. They decide to keep the gun and place it at the bottom of the flagstaff, to be fired each year on the anniversaries of the rebellion, and of the battle.

    Chapter 5
    Winter is approaching. Mollie, who has been avoiding work more and more, is found to have been accepting gifts of ribbon and sugar from one of the men on the neighbouring farm. Shortly afterwards she disappears, and is said to be pulling a cart in the town. No one on the farm ever sees her again, and she is never mentioned again.
    With the land now frozen solid, it is impossible to do any farming. A lot of time is spent on meetings of all the animals in the big barn, where the future policy for the farm is discussed and voted on. The divisions between Snowball and Napoleon are becoming more pronounced, and it seems that they now oppose each other on every proposal. Snowball’s eloquence allows him to control the meetings, However, Napoleon works quietly behind the scenes building support, and succeeding in getting all of the sheep onto his side.
    Snowball is forever proposing new plans and schemes for the improvement of the farm, all of which are opposed by Napoleon. Snowball’s most ambitious plan is for the construction of a windmill, which he says can provide heat and electricity to the farm. He accepts that it will be a huge undertaking, and is vague about some of the details. Napoleon is completely against the idea, and makes his opposition clear. Snowball continues to work on his plans, and spends hours every day in a shed working on them, drawing them out on the wooden floor. All of the animals visit Snowball regularly in the shed to watch the plans grow into something that looks very complex and impressive. Only Napoleon holds back, and when he does come to inspect the plans, he urinates on them.
    The day comes when all the animals will gather in the big barn to vote on whether or not the windmill will be built. The farm is divided into two factions at this stage, the “Vote for Snowball and the three-day week” faction, and the “Vote for Napoleon and the full manger” faction. Snowball has convinced his faction that the windmill will lead to increased leisure time for everybody, while Napoleon has convinced his faction that the distraction of the windmill will cause the animals to lose time on the harvest and starve.
    The meeting begins. The sheep heckle Snowball as he explains his plans for the windmill, and why it will be good for the farm. Napoleon then rises and gives a very brief and curt address, advising everyone to vote against the windmill. Snowball then speaks again. He talks passionately and eloquently, and creates a vision of a mechanised farm with heat and light, with electrical threshers and ploughs and reapers, where the animals do little or no work, and All the labour is carried out by the electricity generated by the windmill. It is clear that Snowball will win the vote.
    Just then, Napoleon stands and emits a queer sound, a kind of whimper. At this signal, nine huge dogs, the dogs that Napoleon took away as puppies months before, rush into the barn and charge at Snowball. They chase him from the barn and off the farm. He is never seen again.
    The other animals, who had left the barn to watch the chase, now return to the barn, where Napoleon addresses them. He tells them that Sunday Meetings are henceforth abolished, and that all decisions in future will be taken solely by the pigs. Any dissent is silenced by growls from the dogs, and the meeting finishes to a fifteen-minute chorus of “Four legs good, two legs bad” from the sheep. Squealer follows up in the aftermath, explaining to the shocked animals of the farm that Napoleon has taken on the leadership with great reluctance and with great sacrifice to himself. The animals are soon won over when they are reminded of what life was like under Jones.
    Three weeks after this fateful meeting, Napoleon announces that the Windmill will now be built. The animals are warned that this will mean lots of extra hard work, and a reduction in their rations. Squealer explains the apparent change of heart by convincing the animals that Napoleon had been in favour of the windmill all along, but had to appear to be against it in order to get rid of Snowball. The animals are easily persuaded.

    Chapter 6
    Another year passes. The animals work themselves to the bone on the harvest and on the windmill, all under the supervision of the pigs. The animals are asked to work on Sunday afternoons as well, on a voluntary basis, though any animal that did not work on Sunday had their rations halved. By autumn time, it is clear that the harvest is a poorer one than the previous year. This will make the coming winter all the more difficult.
    Progress on the windmill is laborious and slow. The stones with which it is to be built have to be hauled to the top of the quarry and thrown from there to the bottom, so that the stones can be broken into the appropriate sizes. It takes until the end of the summer to accumulate enough stone to begin building the windmill, work which depends almost entirely on the tremendous efforts of Boxer, who works himself harder than ever before.
    As the work on the harvest and the windmill proceeds, the animals find themselves running out of supplies. Items such as paraffin, seeds, manure and machinery could not be produced on the farm. This problem is resolved when Napoleon announces one day that Animal Farm will henceforth enter into trading arrangements with some of the surrounding farms. Hay and wheat from the farm will be sold, and the hens are told that they will have to give up some of their eggs, a sacrifice that they should be proud to make. Some of the animals are doubtful about this move, seeming to remember an agreement in the early days after the rebellion never to have anything to do with humans. Again, Squealer puts any doubts to rest in the following days, informing them that such a resolution was never written down.
    From then on, Napoleon engages a local solicitor to act as the middleman between Animal Farm and the outside world. The solicitor comes every Monday, and his presence makes the other animals very uneasy, but their doubts are eased by their pride in seeing Napoleon give orders to a human.
    Shortly afterwards, the pigs move into the farmhouse. They eat in the kitchen, relax in the drawing room, and even sleep in the beds. Some of the animals are very doubtful about this. Clover consults the seven commandments on the gable wall, and asks Muriel to read out the fourth commandment, which states, “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets.” Muriel cannot remember sheets being mentioned before. However, helped by the smooth words of Squealer, she assumes that she must have been wrong, She and the other animals accept his argument that the pigs, as the leaders, must have as much comfort as possible to facilitate their brainwork.
    The work on the windmill continues. The animals are all extremely proud of their progress so far, except for Benjamin, who expresses no opinion for or against the windmill. By November, the windmill is half finished. However, disaster strikes when a nighttime storm destroys it. The animals all gather around the ruin. Napoleon is silent for a long time, before making the sudden and dramatic announcement that the windmill was destroyed by Snowball. Some pig footprints leading away from the farm are discovered, and Napoleon confirms them to belong to Snowball. The other animals are shocked that their former leader could do such a thing. Napoleon announces that work on rebuilding the windmill will commence immediately.

    Chapter 7
    The animals now face into a brutal winter. Corn is scarce, and the farm’s stock of potatoes has been destroyed by frost. By January, they are threatened with starvation. The pigs conceal this fact from the outside world by filling the store-bins full of sand, topping the bins with what few provisions they have left, and allowing their human middleman to walk past the apparently full bins. However, they must obtain food from the outside world somehow.
    At a Sunday meeting, Squealer announces that the hens must give up their eggs, so that they can be traded with the outside world for grain and meal. The hens are stunned into rebellion. They take to laying their eggs from the rafters of the coop, allowing them to smash to the ground. The pigs respond by stopping their rations completely, and threatening death on any other animals that shares their food with them. Eventually the hens relent, and they are forced to give up their eggs as soon as they are laid.
    All the while, the pigs spread terrible rumours about Snowball. Snowball is said to be hiding on one of the neighbouring farms. He is said to be sneaking into Animal farm by night and doing untold damage. Every mishap and misfortune on the farm was now attributed to Snowball. Napoleon makes a show of doing a major tour of the farm, accompanied by his dogs, to investigate the activities of Snowball. This goes on for some weeks, when the dramatic announcement is made that Snowball was in league with Jones from the very start. Squealer tells the animals that this terrible discovery has been made from documents that the pigs have just discovered. The animals are shocked and puzzled by this. Boxer, in particular, is reluctant to accept this. He questions Squealer; he reminds him how bravely Snowball fought when the farmers tried to invade Animal Farm. Squealer tries to reassure him, but Boxer remains persistent in his belief that Snowball could never have been in league with Jones. Squealer eventually convinces Boxer by telling him that Napoleon has stated categorically that Snowball was an agent of Jones. Boxer finally relents at this, assuming that Napoleon must be correct. Boxer’s persistence in questioning Squealer, however, has been noted.
    An assembly of all the animals in the yard is now called. Napoleon, who now rarely leaves the farmhouse, and is never without his escort of dogs, stands before them. At a signal, the dogs charge into the crowd and drag four of the more troublesome pigs before Napoleon. At the same time, three of the dogs attach Boxer. Boxer easily fends them off. The miserable pigs are forced to confess to having been in league with Snowball, and are murdered on the spot by the dogs. Other animals come forward to confess various crimes against the farm, and each in turn is slaughtered.
    These are the first killings of other animals since the rebellion. The animals creep away from the meeting. Boxer, in trying to understand why this has happened, resolves that the only possible solution is to work harder. Clover, not as strong but more intelligent, has deep misgivings about what she has seen, but she cannot put them into words. She remains faithful to Napoleon, but deep down she knows that this state of affairs was not what they fought for in the rebellion. The animals try to console them by singing Beasts of England. However, they are interrupted by Squealer, who tells them that the song is henceforth abolished. It is to be replaced a song called Animal Farm, composed by one of the pigs. The animals take up the new song faithfully, but are aware that it does not compare to Beasts of England.

    Chapter 8
    After the executions, Clover is again uneasy that one of the seven commandments has been broken. She asks Muriel to read her the sixth commandment again from the gable wall. The commandment reads, “No animal shall kill another animal without cause.” Clover did not seem to remember having read the last two words before, but she thought no more of it.
    The animals spend the following year working harder than ever. Squealer exhorts them to greater efforts, telling them that productivity on the farm has improved enormously since the rebellion, though many of the animals secretly feel hungry. Napoleon, who is now known as “Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon,” and several other flattering titles, is seen in public rarely, and now employs a cockerel as a herald, as well as being accompanied at all times by his dogs.
    Relations between the neighbouring farms, Frederick of Pinchfield and Pilkington of Foxwood, remain complex. Napoleon, through the middleman, has been trying to sell off a pile of timber to one of the other neighbour. At this time, rumours abound that Frederick is about to attack the farm. A plot to murder Napoleon is uncovered. Three hens confess that Snowball, said to be living on Pinchfield, put them up to it. The hens are executed. Napoleon announces shortly afterwards that the wood is to be sold to Pilkington of Foxwood. When, later in the year, the wheat crop is found to be full of weeds, Snowball, and by implication Frederick, are blamed. The whole farm seethes with anger and resentment against Frederick, who is now the sworn enemy of Animal farm.
    The windmill is completed by autumn. The animals forget their worries temporarily to celebrate this magnificent achievement. The animals are all congratulated by Napoleon. Two days later, he calls them to a meeting and announces that the wood is to be sold to Frederick. The animals are astonished, but Squealer easily explains this away as part of Napoleon’s strategy, to appear friendly with one neighbour while secretly courting the other. The sale goes ahead, and the solicitor organises the transport of the wood off the farm, and the delivery of the banknotes to Napoleon.
    Three days later, the notes are discovered to be forgeries. Napoleon assembles the animals again and pronounces the death sentence on Frederick. At the same time, he warns them that Frederick and his men may be about to attack the farm.
    The attack comes the next morning. Fifteen men, six with guns, approach the farm, and the battle is joined. Messengers are sent to Foxwood requesting assistance, but Pilkington sends back a curt rejection. The animals are driven back to the farm buildings. While they are trapped there, the men plant dynamite around the windmill. In the ensuing explosion, the windmill is obliterated. The animals react to this by forgetting all about the guns and charging headlong at the men, who after a brief struggle, run for their lives.
    The animals are dejected at the loss of the windmill, but the pigs quickly set about the task of rebuilding morale by reminding them of the magnificent victory they have won. The day will be forever commemorated as the Battle of the Windmill. In the ensuing celebrations, the forged banknotes are forgotten.
    The pigs then discover a cask of whisky in the farmhouse. That night, loud celebrations are heard in the farmhouse, to the amazement of the other animals. Soon afterwards, it is announced that a small field near the orchard, originally set aside for retired animals who could work no more, was to be ploughed up and sown with barley. Muriel is troubled by this development, and she consults the fifth commandment. Again, she realises she has remembered it incorrectly, for it says, “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.”

    Chapter 9
    Rebuilding of the windmill begins immediately after the celebrations. Boxer works harder than ever, despite carrying an injury from the battle. His thoughts are now turning to retirement, for which, under the laws of Animal farm, he is due the next year. In the meantime, another cold winter with little food must be endured. Squealer bamboozles the animals with productivity figures which prove how much better off they are than when they were under Jones, although many have by now forgotten life under Jones.
    The strain of the resources of the farms grows, not least due to the birth of thirty-one piglets the previous autumn. Napoleon declares that a new schoolroom must be built for the piglets, who are instructed to remain aloof from the other animals. The schoolroom is in addition to the requirement to rebuild the windmill and the need to keep the farm supplied with various other requirements. Potatoes are sold, and practically every egg laid by the hens is sold to earn the money required for these supplies. All the while, the animals’ rations are being reduced, while the pigs make beer from the barley they sowed earlier in the year.
    Napoleon now introduces a weekly event called the Spontaneous Demonstration, where every animal would leave their work to march in military procession around the farm, so as to instil pride in the animals in the achievements of the farm since the rebellion. It comforts the animals to know that, no matter how hard their lives, at least they have the benefit of being their own masters. Another consolation around this time is the reappearance of Moses and his tales of SugarCandy Mountain. Many of the animals like to believe that they will go to a better place after their deaths, and the pigs now seem to tolerate Moses, giving him an allowance of beer every day.
    The building work around the farm continues through the summer, heavily dependent on the extraordinary efforts of Boxer. He is showing some signs at this stage that his strength is failing. He himself is hoping to get as much done as he possibly can before he retires. Then, one summer evening, he collapses. All the animals rush to his side, unable to bear the thought that anything might happen to him. He barely has the strength to get back to his feet and to struggle back to his stall. Squealer promises to send him to the town so that the veterinary surgeon can treat him. Clover and Benjamin spend as much time as they can over the next few days nursing him. Then, while the animals are all at work, the van comes to take Boxer away. They would not have noticed, except that Benjamin gallops across the farm to tell them that Boxer is being taken away. No one has ever seen Benjamin gallop before. The animals rush to the yard in time to see the van begin to pull away. They start to wave goodbye to Boxer, but Benjamin is very agitated, and tells them to read the letters on the van. Muriel reads out the sign on the van, which describes the van as belonging to the local horse-slaughterer. The animals try to warn Boxer, who tries to kick his way out of the van, but he has no strength, and the kicking from the van soon dies away.
    Three days later, Squealer announces that Boxer died in the hospital. He makes a moving speech in praise of Boxer. He explains the sign on the van by saying that the veterinary surgeon bought the van from the horse-slaughterer, and had not yet replaced the sign. The animals are very relieved to hear this, and are greatly consoled by Squealer’s further descriptions of the wonderful care and treatment that Boxer received in his final hours.
    Napoleon pays his respects to Boxer at the meeting on the following Sunday. He tells them that it was not possible to return Boxer’s remains for burial on the farm, but that he will be commemorated with a wreath instead. Napoleon announces a memorial banquet for Boxer, which takes place in the farmhouse shortly afterwards, attended only by the pigs.

    Chapter 10
    Years have passed, and many of the animals are dead. Only Clover, Benjamin, Moses and some of the pigs remember the days before the rebellion. Clover is by now very old, well past retirement age, except that no animal has actually managed to retire yet.
    The windmill has finally been completed. It is used for milling corn, rather than for generating electricity, and brings a good profit to the farm. Another windmill is now being built to generate electricity. There is no more talk of the three-day week, or any of the other luxuries that Snowball originally promised would accrue from the windmill.
    The farm is growing richer, but the animals themselves do not seem to benefit much from it. There are many pigs and dogs on the farm now. The pigs are all involved in the bureaucracy of running the farm, and are not available to do any actual work, though Squealer makes it clear to the others that what the pigs do is of vital importance to the farm. Squealer continues to impress everyone with detailed figures of how everything has improved on the farm, but deep down the animals are unable to reconcile this with the lack of improvement in their own conditions. Nonetheless, Animal Farm remains the only farm in England to be owned by the animals, and the animals remain enormously proud of this.
    Summer arrives. Squealer is seen to take all the sheep of the farm aside, and no-one sees them for a week. The sheep eventually return. That evening, as the animals are returning to the yard from work, Clover is heard neighing excitedly from the yard. The animals rush forward to see what is happening. They stop dead when they all see what has startled Clover. It is the sight of Squealer walking upright, on his hind legs. At this moment, all of the pigs leave the farmhouse in single file, all upright on two legs. Finally, Napoleon emerges from the farmhouse, upright and carrying a whip.
    It is the most shocking thing the animals have ever seen. It goes against everything that they have been taught up to then. Just as it seems that someone might object, the sheep break into a deafening chorus of “Four legs bad, two legs better.” They went on for five minutes, during which the pigs walked briefly around and then returned to the farmhouse. The chance to protest is gone. Clover goes to the gable wall and brings Benjamin with her. She asks Benjamin to read for her what is on the gable wall. All the commandments are gone, and all that is written there now is “All animals are equal, But some animals are more equal than others.”
    After this, the pigs and their sows start wearing clothes and carrying whips. They begin to have more direct dealings with the neighbouring farmers. One day, the pigs invite a number of the local farmers to inspect the farm.
    After the inspection, the pigs and the farmers return to the farmhouse for a celebration. After a time, loud noises of laughter and singing are heard through the windows. The other animals are overcome with curiosity, and they approach the farmhouse to see what is going on. They look through the windows to see the pigs and farmers seated around the living room table, playing cards, making speeches and congratulating one another. Mr Pilkington makes a speech telling the pigs how impressed he is with Animal Farm, especially with the hard work and poor rations of the farm animals. Napoleon makes a speech in return, expressing his happiness that the mistrust between Animal Farm and the others is now at an end. He furthermore announces that the animals will cease to address each other as “Comrade,” and that “Animal Farm” will now revert to being called “Manor Farm.” As Napoleon finishes his speech to great applause, the animals outside seem to notice something changing in the features of the pigs, but what?
    As the applause dies down and the card game is resumed, the animals creep away from the window. However, they hurry back when they hear a furious argument break out. The argument is because Mr. Pilkington and Napoleon have both played an Ace of Spades at the same time. But as the animals look from Napoleon to Pilkington, from man to pig and from pig back to man, they find that they are unable to tell the difference


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